Skip to main content

Full text of "Animation art in the commercial film"

See other formats


or 



f fitter 



Animation Art 

IN TMe COMMfKCIAL FILM 



Animation Art 



IN 7H COMMERCIAL FILM 



Eli L. Levitan 




Reinhold Publishing Corporation New York 



1960, REINHOLD PUBLISHING CORPORATION 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NO. 6013163 

DESIGNED BY MYRON HALL HI 

TYPE SET AND PRINTED BY CONNECTICUT PRINTERS, INC. 

BOUND BY HUSSELL-RUTTEH COMPANY 



Contents 



INTRODUCTION 9 

PART I THE ANIMATED FILM 11 

PART II PLANNING 23 

The Story Board 24 

Film and the Editor 26 

Bar Sheets 30 

Cartoon Characters 32 

Basic Construction 32 

Types of Characters 38 

Backgrounds 40 

PART III PRODUCTION 43 

The Exposure Sheet 44 

The Hold Cel 46 

Cel Levels 48 

Exposure Numbers 49 

Ones, Twos and Threes 50 

Animation 52 

The Animation Board 52 

Extremes 54 

Timing 56 

The Beat 57 

Accent and Anticipation 58 

Takes 60 

The Bouncing Ball 62 

Squash and Stretch 65 

Movement Cycles 66 

Lip Synchronization 68 

Effects 72 

Flipping 73 

Shadows 73 

The Inbetweener 74 

The Inker 74 

The Opaquer 74 

PART IV FILMING 77 

The Animation Camera 78 

The Optical Printer 82 

PART V THE GE COMMERCIAL 85 



Scene 1 
Scene 2 
Scene 3 

IN CONCLUSION 

APPENDIX 

Glossary of Terms 
Index 



88 
100 
110 

117 

119 

120 
127 



To Transfilm 



6 



My sincere thanks to General Electric for permitting 
me to use the material contained in these pages. 
Most of the drawings in this book were used in the 
production of a one-minute television commercial featuring 
transistor radios. 

Eli L. Levitan 



Introduction 



Animate (an'-i-mat) . v.t. [L. animatiis, past part, of animare, fr. anima breath, soul.] 
1. To give natural life to; to make alive. 2. To give spirit or vigor to; to inspirit; also, 
to stimulate; rouse. 3. To impart an appearance of life to; as, to animate a cartoon. 
4. To actuate; prompt. 

Animated cartoon or drawing. A series of drawings with slight progressive changes, made 
and arranged to be photographed and projected like a motion picture. 

These definitions from Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary state con- 
cisely what the word "animate" and what the term "animated cartoon" 
mean; but the reader is left in somewhat the same quandary as the anima- 
tion-studio visitor, who, after being shown through the various departments, 
still had one last question, "Yes, but what makes them move?" 

This book was planned to provide the answer to that question as well as 
to many others on the subject of animation. In order to accomplish this, the 
animation of a television commercial is carefully analyzed. A commercial 
was chosen for analysis because the techniques used in the production of 
animated commercials are much more varied than those used in theatrical 
animation. 

A major problem in writing the book was how to present detailed informa- 
tion on isolated techniques and procedures without losing the thread of the 
story as a whole. It is my hope that this has been solved by the present 
organization of the material. 

The production of a typical one-minute television commercial is outlined 
in the first section in order to give the reader an over-all concept of the 
procedure. Following chapters describe techniques and procedures in 
detail. In so far as possible, procedures have been taken up in the same 
sequence in which they would occur in actual production. However, because 
some phases of production overlap or occur simultaneously, it has been 
necessary to mention certain processes, along with appropriate terminol- 



9 



INTRODUCTION 



ogies, before their proper production sequence. Where this occurs, the sub- 
ject is covered more fully in a later chapter. The last section analyzes the 
animation techniques used in an actual television commercial a General 
Electric commercial advertising its transistor radios. Most of the illustrative 
material used throughout the book is from this GE commercial. 

Although this book is intended to provide a clear, understandable descrip- 
tion of each process necessary for the production of an animated film, some 
of the more technical phases have been mentioned only briefly in order to 
give more space to the technique of animation itself. For the animation 
technique, although considerably older than any other motion-picture tech- 
nique, is the least understood and, perhaps, the most misunderstood. 

Animation is capable of producing a variety of effects unobtainable in 
"live" motion-picture production and when used as a motion-picture tech- 
nique for purposes other than entertainment, it is usually more effective 
than live film. Interest is sustained for longer periods of time, and a greater 
percentage of the film's subject matter is retained by the viewer. 

The impact and effectiveness of the animated film is acknowledged 
through its steadily increasing use by advertising agencies for commercial 
purposes, by industrial organizations for technical and training purposes 
and by educational institutions for teaching a great variety of subjects. 
Because of this increased use of animation as an all-purpose technique, pro- 
duction studios throughout the United States and Europe, and even in parts 
of the world usually thought of as remote, are on a constant alert for skilled 
personnel. 

For the great number of artists and cartoonists who know of animation 
but not about it, these pages provide an opportunity to acquire the knowl- 
edge necessary for entering the animation industry. For professional film 
producers these pages offer a better understanding of the motion-picture 
technique called animation. And for those readers interested in the me- 
chanics of all forms of motion-picture production, the information contained 
in these pages will be extremely useful as a basis for more advanced study 
of the technical processes involved in film production generally. 



10 



Parti 

The Animated Film 



The purpose of this section is to give the reader an 
over-all picture of the production of an animated com- 
mercial. Starting with the story board, the procedures 
are outlined up to the point of the film's release to 
the television stations. 



11 



The Animated Film 



A strip of processed motion-picture film consists of a series of pictures that 
have been exposed one at a time. Each exposure is called a frame of film. 
An illusion of movement is produced by the continuous projection of indi- 
vidual frames. 

One blank frame of 35mm motion-picture film is shown here. You see 24 
frames every second when watching a motion picture or a television com- 
mercial. During the course of a 60-second commercial, you see 1,440 indi- 
vidual pictures, or frames. 

Many months of planning and preparation go into the production of 1,440 
frames of film for a one-minute, "spot" commercial. A chain reaction is 
started when the client decides to use animated cartoons to advertise its 
product. Representatives of the client and the advertising agency come 




Blank frame of film 
with sound track. 



Reel of processed film. 




13 



THE ANIMATED FILM 




j-^ nm """ <"> MAXON^INC. 


r ~ .....^r,... 


D*clr Spot (Op wl for IdMtirtaUm) 


VIDEO 


AUDIO 


73D JULIO Off T*SL - 




JUUU9T IWDK MIL. 


but 4 loo-litiii( Unititeri 


MDIO nra vj's mini. 


""*- 


TMlOt B^X TO KB TrOt,.GDl 

ODTrns) LEAVHG DEK or 


mrrr*" 1 """ 




HJSICi KILD MISIC TO n <0*. 


LISSOLfl TO EIEn-,1 OP IU, 




TI jJCISTOS , JDOELS. 












HLL-TMJI3TETOS IttDIQS.* 




(nour ncmu TO w IK.) 






14 




together at a series of meetings to discuss their ideas and sift out the best 
ones for further development. Many ideas are discarded and much work is 
done and redone before they finally achieve a satisfactory story board, a 
series of cartoon panels similar to a comic strip. 

Further work on the story board and its accompanying script is done 
by the advertising agency. Then, after a final okay from the client, the 
agency sends out copies of the story board and script to several animation 
studios for competitive bids. 

Immediately after the studio has been selected, its department heads meet 
with the advertising agency representatives to discuss the story board and 
to talk over anticipated problems. After the approach has been agreed upon, 
the animation studio begins production of the film. 




15 



THE ANIMATED FILM 




Recording sound. 



Shooting live action. 



Viewing dailies. 



The first major step is to make the sound track. An actor is hired to create 
the cartoon character's voice and given a script to study. A recording studio 
is booked and the dialogue for the animated portions of the commercial as 
well as any musical background is recorded on tape. Several takes of the 
recording may be necessary before a final tape meets with everybody's ap- 
proval. This approved tape is transferred to film. The result is called a mag- 
netic sound track. 

If there is a "live" spot in the commercial, the work on it has also begun. 
Since live actors act and talk at the same time, the action is filmed at the 
same time that the dialogue is recorded. When each day's shooting is 
finished, the film is sent to the laboratory for developing and printing. 
These dailies, sometimes called rushes, are usually reviewed the day after 
shooting by both ad agency and studio representatives. The good takes are 
selected and temporarily matched to the magnetic sound track. The result 
is known as the rough-cut print. 

During this period, the animation department has continued its work. 
The sound has already been recorded and transferred to film and the di- 
rector of animation and the film editor have picked out the portion of the 
sound track to be used with the animated section of the commercial. The 
film editor now carefully analyzes the sound track by running it through 
a device known as a sound reader. In the blank areas of the film, the editor 
writes the exact dialogue as it has been recorded, breaks up words into 
syllables, and makes note of musical accents and beats. He then runs the 
marked-up sound track through a synchronizer, which measures the exact 
film length of each word, syllable and musical phrase and beat. This in- 
formation is then given to the animation director who prepares bar, or lead, 
sheets. Each frame of the entire commercial is accounted for on these sheets, 
live action included. 



16 



Sound reader and synchronizer. 




Phonetic record of the dialogue 
written on the clear area of film . 



PROD. 



SCENE I'*- SHEET/ 
r<*v**^<. j 




















1 












































1 




n 








WU 


/ 


1 1 1 








1 1 1 1 ' 


1 1 1 






1 1 1 






i \ l 










1 1 1 


























41 ' 




1 1 








1 




J 


















^ 


















;( 


























**> *M 


' " 






"^ . 5 








" 




U*J 










'. 


" 


~ '"* * 


- 


^ 


* 


< 


"*~ 






f 


* 














, 


w. 


>) 


























































































d 1 L 








j j I Lj 








AWf 


, , 




M| I L 


I 








Ji 1 
















, 
' 


. 








J-l L 












_|_U 1 


? 


i r 








I i 


1 1 I 






11 M 






1 


,' 








i 










, 


, 


l" 










I 


1 f 












t n 




MM 










1 






MM 






1 1 1 










1 1 1 




.> 




















1 




p 




1 l 

" 






' ( 












~~7 


jj^jy 
































* 


*i 


1 


^ 


u 


'* 






















































































Li, 


> 


i 






4pj 










L 1 1 






,,1,1,1 ! 






iisLl 




, 






it] .1 L 


























1 ! i 












-LJ_J J. 1 


t- 


Jfr 




i. 




i. 


it 


I 


'< 


1 






m' 




* 






ffltt 






, 


K 




* 





f 


- 




- 




T r 












tltr 




1 T| 1 








' . 


1 1 1 


i 




MM 


'" 




1 1 > 










MM 




j 






















1 1 ' 


1 


~ ; 








I M ' 






















. 








































t 




(& 








Cs 














































































1 1 1 




! 




H.U.U. 


r-.-UL 


1 


,1 


4UJ 






tli I- 


































1 


11 1 




\ \ 1 








U-U*lfL 




pjity 


) 


1 




mrr 


TlT 




1 


fl T l 






rtl 










MI 


























1 






, 
l 






iTrrrc 




1 1 1 








MM' 


1 1 1 


i 




MM 






1 1 1 










1 ' ' 




- 




















1 


1 1 ' 


. 




1 1 






MM, 












a 


































pw 


\ 

,. 


l d 

K 


<S 

AM 


* 

-.- 





















, 












































































, 


J I 1 








1 U 1 1 


.1 




1 


-III 
















1 1 1 


























| i 




1 1 i 


! 






ill I 




1 r 









Hi 


l_3 




1 




( 




i j i 




i 
































1 1 1 




1 


i i 






, (JJ 


r 


1- 1 








MM 1 


i 






1 1 l 
















1 1 1 










1 


' 












-, 






' M | 

i 


1 i 






_ M-T^ 

1 . . 


^ 










>H 










. 
















, 






-= 






- 


~- 





~ 





- 


. ~""" 

.' 
















THE ANIMATED FILM 




The background artist. 



The animator. 



The inbetweener. 



In the meantime, the director and the layout man have discussed the 
cartoon character to be animated and have decided on a suitable person- 
ality in keeping with the recorded voice on the sound track. Backgrounds and 
other story-board requirements, such as a simplified design for the real "hero" 
of the commercial, the product to be advertised, have also been discussed. 

The layout man designs the character, the proposed backgrounds and 
the product, and then submits many rough sketches of his designs to the 
animation director. The director makes his selection on the basis of the ease 
with which the character can be animated and its acceptance as the logical 
personality for the voice on the sound track. Now that basic decisions have 
been made, the animation production line swings into high gear. 

The animator and the background artist are given copies of the story 
board and the approved layouts for the character and the backgrounds to 
be used in the commercial. Because their work is so closely interrelated, 
they discuss the handling of the cartoon character and the treatment of the 
backgrounds before going to work at their respective drawing boards. 

The background artist renders the backgrounds, using water colors or 
whatever medium or treatment has been agreed upon. (I have seen back- 
grounds that were made from Chinese rice paper and others that were built 
in three dimensions for multiplane setups; but this is not common. ) 

At the same time, the animator has been drawing the cartoon character 
in many different poses. When the animator feels entirely familiar with the 
character, he draws the basic action for the scene on which he is working 
while constantly referring to his copy of the story board. However, he does 



18 




The inker. 



The opaquer. 



not make every drawing that will be required for the complete scene. He 
makes the key drawings only, that is, drawings he considers necessary to 
show and plot the action and its continuation. As he makes his drawings, 
the animator also includes instructions for completing the action. He then 
passes his drawings on to the inbetweener, the artist who makes the draw- 
ings that come in between the animator's key drawings. 

After all the drawings in the scene are completed, both animator's and 
inbetweener's, they are given to the director who flips through them. If 
the director is satisfied that the action in the animated sequence is smooth 
and well done, the scene is turned over to the planning department to- 
gether with a copy of the layout for the background to be used with the 
scene. In the planning department, the scene is checked for technical 
accuracy and made ready for the work to follow in other departments. 

The first of these is the inking department. Here, the drawings are 
traced on thin sheets of transparent celluloid or acetate, the same size as 
the drawing paper used by the animator. The inker traces each line metic- 
ulously with either a crow-quill pen or a fine brush; he uses a good quality, 
waterproof, black ink that will not run or smear. 

When the inker has traced all the drawings in the scene onto eels, the 
sheets of celluloid described above, the eels are given to the opaquing de- 
partment. Opaque water colors black, white or tones of gray are applied 
to the reverse side of each eel in accordance with instructions on a model 
drawing. All the inked and opaqued eels are now turned over to the check- 
ing department. The checker goes over each eel to see that the colors used 




Model drawing. 



19 



THE ANIMATED FILM 




Animation stand. 



in the entire scene are consistent and that no mistakes have been made. He 
also makes certain that no eels or backgrounds are missing before sending 
the scene on to the camera department. 

Upon receipt of the finished art work, the animation cameraman places 
each eel over the background in the sequence called for by the animator and 
photographs them, one at a time, using specially designed animation cameras. 
The exposed film is then sent to the laboratory for developing and printing. 

After processing, the film is returned to the film editor. Using the informa- 
tion on the bar sheets described earlier, the film editor and the animation di- 
rector synchronize the animation to the sound track by using a moviola, 
which can run both reels at the same time. 

This rough cut of the live action and animation portions is screened for the 
client, ad agency and studio personnel. If titles or other effects are to be 
added, a duplicate print, known as a fine grain, is given to the optical camera- 
man. He will add the required effects by using the versatile optical printer, 
a camera that photographs film instead of art work, and which is capable of 
producing many special effects, such as fades, flips, repeats, and multiple- 
image shots; it can also copy more than one strip of film at a time almost any 
effect desired can be achieved through its use. 

After the optical cameraman has added titles and any other effects re- 
quested, the processed result is synchronized with the sound track and 
screened once more. If this answer print is deemed satisfactory, the animation 
film and sound track are sent back to the laboratory to be combined into a 
composite print. 

After many months' work, the animated film is now finished. Composite 
prints are sent to the TV stations in time to meet a previously established 
deadline and home audiences are shown the finished commercial. 



20 




Optical printer. 




Moviola. 



Packing release films for distribution. 




Part II 
Planning 



Planning an animated film is, in many ways, more 
important than any process that follows. For it is in 
the planning stage that the policy governing the entire 
production is established. Mistakes at this point result 
in additional costs for every stage of production, which 
can make the difference between a profit or loss for 
the animation studio. 



23 



PLANNING / The Story Board 



The Story Board 



The story board is a series of drawings, not unlike a comic strip, arranged in 
a sequence to illustrate a story or situation. The applicable narration or dia- 
logue is usually written or typed under each drawing. 

Some story boards consist of rather crude drawings, intended to convey an 
idea rather than display any artistic merit. Other story boards are more finely 
drawn, with details sharply indicated, to show exactly what is expected in 
the finished commercial. Although most story boards are supplied by the 



* 

CU OF WIMPLE 





LIVE ACTIOH 

DISSOLVE TO WAIST SHOT AS MAN TAKES P-715 

OUT OF COAT 



CDT TO ECU RADIO SUPER IN SlBCs "HHi 
(GE) IHSIG10A ALL-TRANSISTOR, RADIO" 



WIMPLE: ANC JUST WHIN I NEED A RADIO 
MOST. PHOOEY: 



ASUCRi THIS HEW GENUAL ELECTRIC AU 
(V.O.) TRANSISTOR TOCKET RADIO WITH 
KiCiURCEABLE BATTERIES 



LOOK! HEKE'S THh ANSWEK TO 
(V.O.) THAT PROBLEM. 




client or its ad agency, the animation studio may sometimes be asked to origi- 
nate the ideas and drawings. 

Shown here is part of the story board used in the production of the tele- 
vision commercial discussed in Part V. If you study this story board, you will 
find that the client and its advertising agency have carefully indicated the 
"sales pitch" and other basic principles of advertising although they have only 
roughly indicated the style to be followed in drawing the cartoon character. 



DISSOLVE. TO RHWUDIK BQBDCt. HAMS 

ite.ua HAi'io IN aft, PLOC IN CORD. 



ANNCRl KiCHARGING IS A CINCH ... INTO 
(V.O.J THt CASE ... FLOG Ik ... THAT'S 
ALL! CHAKGIS BATTUtlLS AKD 
COTS OFF AUTOHATICALLI. 



Ill NORMAL USL, IOU WOI'T HAVE TC 
SPFJIL A Pl.NNl FOR BATTERItS 
FOK UP TO 13 lEAhS. 





HiHDE MILL OU: HANl.I.l,, U3LD RAL10 BJ 
TWO FINGU^. SUFth: "10,000 HOUhS.' 



AKNCh: 
(V.O.) 



THAT blVE OU UP TO 1, ,OOO 
(CURS Of LISTEN!*. FUN WITHOUT 
A BATTUa CHANGE. 



DISSOLVL T(J CD HANDS HOLDING f-715 
(HDRIZOWAL) WITH b ThlhSISTOhS. 



N)ICRi AND Tliif^ Aid NO TUBiS TO 
(V.O.) RIPLACh. - fe TIKY ThANSISTOhS 

LIT! THLSE ASSUnt. ILAJ>S OF 

LISTENING PLLASUhi. 



PLANNING / Film and the Editor 



Film and the Editor 



The sound reader, synchronizer, and moviola are the tools used by the film 
editor to ensure the quality and precision usually found in a television com- 
mercial. 

The first of these tools, the sound reader, is used by the editor in analyzing 
the sound track. The sound reader consists of a small, metal housing with a 
round wheel over which the film to be analyzed passes. The housing also con- 
tains a light beam that is directed at the sound portion of the film. The film 
can be wound in either direction over the wheel at any speed desired by the 
editor. In this way, it is possible to pick out high and low tones and accents, 
and to break words into syllables. As the sound-track film travels over the 
wheel and into the synchronizer, the synchronizer measures the film in 
frames and feet. These exact measurements and the film editor's analysis 
enable the animator to time the animation, the cartoon character's move- 
ments and mouth actions, to the twenty-fourth of a second the length of 
time each frame of film is visible when projected. In the photograph shown 
here, the other piece of film passing through the synchronizer is the picture 
portion or work print. 

Another tool used by the film editor is the moviola. The moviola can run 
both the picture reel and the sound-track reel at the same time. By coupling 
the two reels, the film editor and the animation director can determine im- 
mediately how well the two reels synchronize. They then can advance either 
the sound track or the picture reel by the number of frames necessary to get 
a better sync. Perfect synchronization is achieved only after the picture and 
the sound track have been run together many times. 

The process whereby the picture reel and the sound track are run and 
projected at the same time is called the interlock. The rough-cut print, which 
consists of the good takes of the live action and animation spliced together 
by the film editor in their proper order but not necessarily to the exact length, 
is used for this projection. 

During the course of production, many other prints are used. They are as 
follows : 

The work print, as the name implies, is the print used during production. 
Both the visual portion and the sound track are cut to the actual lengths to 
be used in the completed production. 

The optical print is the first combination of animation and live sequences 



26 




Sound reader (left) and synchronizer. 



Film editor using a moviola. 
The chart on the wall shows 
the symbols used for indicat- 
ing wipes and other optical 
effects. To the right is a film 
barrel, the film editor's filing 
cabinet. 




27 



PLANNING / Film and the Editor 



Strips of 35mm and 16mm film. Note the difference in frame size. 
The dotted tapes on the two composite prints are sound tracks. 








(U 



S" 

A" 

>.-.* 






* " 















Ui! 




w 



U 



28 



with special effects. It is used to check the continuity of the filmed picture 
against the stoiy board as well as to check the temporary synchronization 
of the picture and the sound track. 

The composite print, also known as the release print, contains both the 
picture portion and the sound track on the same piece of film. It is the fin- 
ished print that is released to television stations or theatres for showing to 
their audiences. 

Film Conversion Table 

Film travels through a projector at the rate of 24 frames each second. This 
is true of both 35mm and 16mm film even though they differ in film size. For 
example, although a strip of 35mm film containing 1,440 frames is 90 feet 
long and a strip of 16mm film containing the same number of frames is only 
36 feet long, either strip would be projected in the same length of time, one 
minute, because the film-projection rate is based on frames, not on footage. 
The table below shows : 1 ) The number of frames per foot for each film 
size and the comparable footage projected in one minute; 2) comparable 
footage projected for each film during periods ranging from / second to 10 
minutes. 





Film 


35 mm 


16 mm 


No. of frames per foot of film 
Film footage projected in one minute 

No. of frames projected in one minute 


16 
90 


40 
36 


1,440 


1,440 



Film Projected 


Time 




Film Projected 


Time 


35 mm 


16 mm 


35 mm 


16 mm 


% foot 


12 frames 


8 second 




45 feet 


18 feet 


30 seconds 


18 feet 


24 frames 


1 second 




528 feet 


21 feet 


35 seconds 


3 feet 


1 foot 8 frames 


2 seconds 




60 feet 


24 feet 


40 seconds 


48 feet 


1 foot 32 frames 


3 seconds 




678 feet 


27 feet 


45 seconds 


6 feet 


2 feet 16 frames 


4 seconds 




75 feet 


30 feet 


50 seconds 


78 feet 


3 feet 


5 seconds 




828 feet 


33 feet 


55 seconds 


9 feet 


3 feet 24 frames 


6 seconds 




90 feet 


36 feet 


1 minute 


108 feet 


4 feet 8 frames 


7 seconds 




135 feet 


54 feet 


18 minutes 


12 feet 


4 feet 32 frames 


8 seconds 




180 feet 


72 feet 


2 minutes 


138 feet 


5 feet 16 frames 


9 seconds 




270 feet 


108 feet 


3 minutes 


15 feet 


6 feet 


10 seconds 




315 feet 


126 feet 


4 minutes 


228 feet 


9 feet 


15 seconds 




360 feet 


144 feet 


5 minutes 


30 feet 


12 feet 


20 seconds 




900 feet 


360 feet 


10 minutes 


378 feet 


15 feet 


25 seconds 











29 



PLANNING / Bar Sheets 



Bar Sheets 



After the film editor has analyzed and timed the sound track, the animation 
director makes out bar sheets a complete visual synopsis of the entire pro- 
ductionto be used as a guide by the animator and the film editor. Each line 
on a bar sheet, also referred to as a lead sheet, represents a frame of film, or 
a twenty-fourth of a second. Each box represents a foot of film. 

Bar sheets show, in terms of single frames of film, the exact length of each 
syllable in each word of the dialogue in the animated portion of the com- 
mercial; they also show exactly how many frames of film a word is to occupy 
so that the animator can draw the action to fit. 




pa 



rHtitrr 



mm 



a 



tuiwtri 



tnttHrUm 



tthtmHfP 



a 



^I^H-Nlflitt 



P 




ffp 




thiH-HHHI 



When the animation director has accounted for the content of each frame, 
the bar sheets indicate the entire action described in the story board. The 
animator is always guided by the frame count. He cannot, for example, use 
100 frames to animate a scene or action if the dialogue for that scene takes 
only 60 frames of film. 

Sound effects, musical beats, and optical or camera effects are also indi- 
cated on the bar sheets, as are live-action sequences. However, for the live 
action, the director simply writes "live" on the bar sheet; obviously, no sound- 
track analysis is necessary for live actors. 




PLANNING / Cartoon Characters 



Cartoon Characters 



Cartoon characters are basically caricatures of real people with whom we 
come in daily contact fat people, thin people, tall people and short people, 
each with individual characteristics. One word suffices to cover the general 
categories, types. 

Before attempting to interpret a character from the sound of his voice, a 
layout man should listen to the sound track many times always with his 
eyes closed and his imagination open. This will help him to visualize and 
then draw a cartoon character that fits the voice on the sound track. The 
result will be a good combination of sight and sound. 

The voice of our cartoon character, Mr. Wimple, used as the example 
throughout this book, is that of a well-known radio and television actor whom 
the animator may have seen. But if the animator drew a caricature of the 
actor as he really is, it would not be at all in character with Mr. Wimple, 
the voice the actor has projected. 

It may be disillusioning but we know the owner of the Popeye voice, and 
he looks no more like Popeye than the average animator does. Therefore, we 
again strongly suggest that a sound track be listened to with closed eyes and 
open mind. 



Basic Construction 



Shown here is the basic construction of Mr. Wimple, the character to be 
animated. The two circles used in the construction and drawing of the head 
can be used to draw almost any type of cartoon head for animation purposes. 
When laying out or animating cartoon-character situations, an animator 
would do well to imagine himself as a performer acting out the same situ- 
ation. An animator's cartoon characters cannot portray an emotion through 
facial expressions unless the animator himself is capable of portraying that 



32 




Construction drawings. 




33 



PLANNING / Cartoon Characters 







emotion. Most animators keep a mirror handy to study their own expressions 
so that they can duplicate them when drawing cartoon characters. 

Although it is generally accepted that most expressions are portrayed with 
the eyes and mouth, it would be unfair to minimize the variety of expression 
that can be achieved with the hands. Most people would be tongue-tied if 
asked to place their hands behind their backs while describing a spiral stair- 
case. Try it and see. An animator should feel free to have his characters 



34 




The drawings on these two pages were made by the 
animator after he had worked out Mr. Wimple's basic 
characteristics. These studies of key facial expressions 
will he used by studio personnel as models for the com- 
mercial. The animator, himself, keeps them pinned to 
his wall and uses them as guides during animation. 

If the commercial is the first of a series featuring the 
same cartoon character, photostats are made so that 
anyone who works on the later animation will have the 
same models to follow. 

The full-figure studies on the next page are also used 
as models. 



35 



PLANNING / Cartoon Characters 





gesture with their hands while speaking. The added movement gives a feel- 
ing of freshness to animation, which might otherwise appear stiff and ama- 
teurish. Both layout man and animator should also remember that a shrug 
of the shoulders or a shake of the head can often accomplish more than 
several sentences of dialogue. 

After completing the basic construction chart of the cartoon character to 
be used in a scene or picture, the layout man should indicate the colors to be 
used for later opaquing of the eels. The drawing containing these color mark- 
ings is known as the color model. The lines separating areas to be opaqued 
in different colors are known as separation lines and should be closed or con- 
nected to other lines. 



36 



Model drawings before and after opaquing. 




37 



PLANNING / Cartoon Characters 



Types of Characters 



Cartoon characters usually fit into one of several basic types. The types used 
most often in animation are: cute, heavy or tough, screwball, and goofy. Each 
of these types is distinguished from the others by many individual character- 
istics. Beginning layout men and animators should keep the following notes 
handy and refer to them when designing or laying out new cartoon charac- 
ters. 



The Cute Type 



The most important distinguishing characteristics of the cute type are the 
physical proportions and attitude. The proportions are similar to those of a 
baby. The head is large in relation to the rest of the body. The forehead is 
high, and the eyes are placed about halfway down the head. The ears, nose 
and mouth are smaller than an adult's. 

A very short neck causes the head to look as though it were sitting right 
on top of the shoulders. The body itself is on the pear-shaped side and a bit 
longer than normal; the stomach bulges slightly; the arms and legs are short 
and rounded. The completed drawing of the cute type of character should 
always suggest a feeling of delicacy. 



The Tough Type 



The heavy or tough character, usually the villain, has many distinguishing 
features and characteristics that set him apart from all other types. 

Built along bigger lines than other characters used in the same picture, 
the tough or bully type usually has a tremendous chest which tapers down 
to a small waist. Normal-sized feet are topped by short, heavy legs. The head 



38 



and facial characteristics differ greatly from those of all other types. Although 
the head is comparatively small in relation to the rest of the body, heavy 
jowls and a jutting chin are usually quite prominent. Small ears, heavy 
eyebrows, small, beady eyes, and a protruding lower lip are the other facial 
characteristics that stand out above a heavy, thick neck. 



The Screwball Type 



The screwball and goofy types have many physical similarities. The main 
difference between them is in the body mass itself. The goofy type is 
shaped almost like a banana, while the screwball type is built along pear- 
shaped lines. 

The screwball type has exaggerated features, such as a low forehead, 
long head and a normal-sized but overly skinny neck. Big feet and skinny 
legs that support the pear-shaped body are the more important distinguish- 
ing body characteristics. 



The Goofy Type 



The goofy character usually has a smaller-than-normal head that is angled 
slightly forward from the body by a long, skinny neck. His hair may or may 
not hang over his forehead, but his eyes almost always have a half-closed, 
sleepy look. An oversized nose, buck teeth, a receding chin, and a prominent 
Adam's apple, which bobs up and down when the character talks, complete 
the head and facial characteristics. 

Some of the other distinguishing features are stooped shoulders, a sunken 
chest, long arms, big hands and a protruding waistline. Baggy pants and 
oversized, clumsy feet complete the picture. 



39 



PLANNING / Backgrounds 



Backgrounds 



Backgrounds have an important function in an animated cartoon made for 
theatrical release. Backgrounds not only serve as a setting for the action in 
a scene, they sometimes subtly help to put over a gag or comic situation. 
Painted by accomplished artists and designers, some backgrounds made for 
animated theatrical films could be framed and hung. 

In commercial animated production, backgrounds play an entirely differ- 
ent part. Since the emphasis in these films is on the "sales pitch" or message, 
the reasoning of the client and the ad agency is that anything on the screen 
not absolutely essential to the commercial would be distracting. Therefore, 
background detail in commercial animated films is kept to a minimum; ab- 
stract and stylized backgrounds are the rule. 

The layouts on this page show how the backgrounds for an animated 
commercial film are developed. 

Upon completing the background layouts, the layout man and background 
artist discuss and agree on the technique to be used in rendering the back- 
grounds. 

There are two types of backgrounds, still and pan. A still background is 
one that remains in a fixed position during an entire scene. A pan background 
is one that is made to move during the photographic process. Pan back- 




1 



\ 



fl 







Background layouts. 



40 




Still background. 




Pan background of skyline. 



41 



PLANNING / Backgrounds 




grounds may move horizontally, vertically or diagonally, depending on the 
action and general movement of the character being animated. 

Inasmuch as the story board showed the cartoon character, Mr. Wimple, 
walking in the opening scene, the animation director and the layout man 
decided that an abstract, pan background was desirable. To give some inter- 
est and movement to the background, they added the soft silhouette of a 
city skyline, with the buildings placed far enough back to eliminate any 
problems in perspective. 

Another background was needed for the close-up scenes in the production. 
For these scenes, the background artist was asked to make a solid-tone, still 
background, consistent with the building colors used in the pan background. 

Pictured on this page are two frames showing how the cartoon character 
looks against the pan and still backgrounds in the completed film. 



42 



Part III 
Production 



Here, sleeves are rolled up, pencils are sharpened, 
and the animated commercial goes into actual produc- 
tion. The processes described take between three and 
four weeks and use the combined talents of approx- 
imately fifty artists who prepare the drawings and eels 
required for the photographic process that follows. 



43 



PRODUCTION / The Exposure Sheet 




The Exposure Sheet 



The ledger-like sheets reproduced on these pages are known in the anima- 
tion industry as exposure or X sheets. Like bar sheets, exposure sheets 
account for every frame of animation in a commercial. Both are used as 
a guide during the production processes; but the bar sheets are used by 
the animation director, film editor and animator, while the exposure sheets 
are used by the inbetweener, inker, colorer, planner, checker and camera- 
man. The animation director makes out the bar sheets before production 
begins, whereas the animator makes out the exposure sheets as he animates. 
The bar sheets remain in the animation director's possession at all times 
during the production of the commercial, but the exposure sheets go with 
the scene as it progresses from one department to the next. 

Exposure sheets contain information and instructions required for each 
production process that follows animation. The sheets indicate the exact 
order in which the eels are to be photographed by the cameraman; they also 
include a description of the sound and the action taking place, as well as 
background notes, camera instructions, and other general information per- 
taining to the scene. 



44 




In the column headed "Track," the 
animator writes the dialogue as pre- 
viously analyzed by the film editor. 

Under "Action," the animator writes 
a short description of the general 
action taking place. 

The "Background" column shows 
the kind of background to be used 
whether still or pan. For a pan 
background, the moves are indi- 
cated for the cameraman. 

In columns 1, 2, 3, and 4, the ani- 
mator indicates, in proper se- 
quence, the eels the animation 
cameraman is to photograph. 

Frames. 

The remaining columns on the 
right-hand side of the exposure 
sheet are for special instructions to 
the cameraman technical informa- 
tion such as cross-dissolves, fades 
and zooms. 



45 



PRODUCTION / The Exposure Sheet 



Section of exposure sheet. 



Mli. .O. 



H. turn miM 

i' 3 



W 



,-.r 




The Hold Cel 





Hold eel 2 



The use of the /zoW eel, a eel that is held still for several frames during some 
portion of an animated sequence, is one of the most effective means of avoid- 
ing unnecessary inking and coloring. A hold eel is made when, during the 
course of an animated action, the character's movement is brought to a com- 
plete or partial stop for any length of time. 

Imagine, for example, an animated sequence in which a cartoon charac- 
ter stands still while speaking. In such a case, the animator can make a 
separate drawing of the head and body of the character and indicate on the 
exposure sheet that it is to be held for the length of time the character re- 
mains in the still position. Then the animator need only draw each new 
mouth action instead of the full head and figure. And later, the inker and 
colorer will have only one eel of the head and body to trace and color instead 



46 





Action eel 3 



The three eels placed in position over the 
background, as they will appear on the 
finished film . 



of the great number that would be required if the inker had to keep retrac- 
ing the head and body for each new mouth action. 

Hold eels can be used in many situations. In the accompanying illustra- 
tion, the drawings of Mr. Wimple's arms and body have been held while 
the head continues to be animated. 

Not only do hold eels save work, but the results obtained through their use 
are infinitely better than those achieved through retracings or tracebacks, 
as the danger of jiggling ink lines, which might result from continual re- 
tracing, is completely eliminated. 

A great work-and-time-saver, the hold eel should be used wherever pos- 
sible. Many examples of its efficient use are to be found in Part V, The Com- 
mercial. 



47 



PRODUCTION / The Exposure Sheet 



Cel Levels 



The number of eel levels (the number of separate drawings to be photo- 
graphed at the same time) used over the background must be consistent 
throughout a scene. This is the only way to ensure uniform density over the 
background of the scene. If this were not done and some frames in a scene 
were photographed with, for instance, two eel levels over the background, 
and others with three or more levels, the result would be flickering on the 
screen. 

In order to avoid such an undesirable effect, a scene that has a maximum 
of three eel levels, for example, must have three eel levels over the back- 
ground for each frame of the scene during the photographic process. It is 
the animator's responsibility to instruct the camera department, through 
his notes on the exposure sheets, where additional eels must be added. He 
does this by first recording on the exposure sheets all of the eels to be used in 
the scene. Then, if he finds the number of eels used over the background 
inconsistent, he indicates on the exposure sheets where blank eels must be 
added. 

It is the maximum number of eels over the background at any point in the 
scene that establishes the eel level to be used for the whole scene. When 
the animator finds he has four levels exposed as the maximum at any point in 
a scene, that scene becomes a four-level scene. This same rule applies to 
one- two- and three-level scenes. 

Five-level scenes, or anything over that number, should be avoided if 
possible. Although the eels or acetates used are completely transparent and 
only .005 of an inch thick, each eel used over a background will tone it down 
somewhat. Five eel levels will gray a background down considerably. 



Section of an exposure sheet for a 
three-level scene. A blank eel has 
been inserted in column 3 to keep 
the number of eel levels in the 
scene consistent. 



UIH mm 



z. s 



, ) 



ML 


ill 

ft 


TUT 
MK 


Ll 

"" ."% "'-> 


vk ."\X > 
J I 4 


1 




- 




fitaS/ ^ 


i CK fa *' r*.o(f) <. 


p <- 1 






V 


^_ -^ 


1 






a 


\ 




i 












, 











. 


i 


ft 




2 



















i 










1 . . , 


: 1 JL_ _ . , . _ 





48 



Exposure Numbers 



The animator should number all drawings used in a scene as simply as 
possible. Obviously, the number assigned to a particular drawing on ani- 
mation paper should also be used for the eel on which the drawing is traced. 

If more than one eel level is animated in a scene, each level should be 
numbered differently. A good system for identifying eel levels is to use 
numerals only 1, 2, etc. for the first eel level; a number and an alphabet 
letter 1A, 2A, etc. for the second level; and for each additional level use 
a different letter. For example, the third level would be identified as IB, 
2B, etc. and the fourth as 1C, 2C and so on. 

Mixing numbers in an animation sequence can only cause great confusion, 
a needless waste of time and the likelihood of errors. 




Exposure sheet on which each eel 
level is identified by a different let- 
ter: the ideal procedure recom- 
mended by the author. 



49 



PRODUCTION / The Exposure Sheet 



Ones, Twos and Threes 



Because of the differences in the comparative speeds of certain actions or 
movements, animation is drawn to be exposed on either ones, twos or threes. 
This refers to the number of times each drawing in an action is photographed. 
A drawing that is exposed on threes, for instance, is photographed three 
times, that is, the same drawing is repeated on three consecutive frames of 
film. When an action is drawn to be exposed on ones, that means there is 
a different drawing for each successive frame: if drawn to be exposed on 
twos, there is a different drawing for every second frame only. 

Obviously then, only half as many drawings are required for an action 
animated on twos as are necessary for a similar action animated on ones. 
Since most animated action on twos will be just as smooth as a similar 
action on ones, almost all animated action should be planned for exposure 
on twos. 

However, there are some instances when animation on twos is not pref- 
erable. When the action is fast and the drawings do not overlap, as in 
violent or widely spaced animation, the action should be planned for ex- 
posure on ones. When a cartoon character or object comes in contact with 
a pan background that is moving on ones one frame for each background 
move the animator should plan the action for exposure on ones also. 

If, however, the character or object being animated is not making contact 
with anything specific on the background, the animation may be on twos, 
even if the background pan is moving on ones. An illustration of this occurs 
in the opening action of the commercial serving as our example. Since 
the character, Mr. Wimple, is in the foreground and no definite relationship 
exists between his walk and the movement of the pan background, he is 
animated on twos, while the background moves on ones. 

When the scene being animated calls for an extremely slow or closely 
spaced action with very little movement between drawings, it is possible to 
animate for exposure on threes. In such cases, the thickness of a pencil line 
should be the maximum space separating the inbetweener's drawings. Closely 
spaced drawings must be very carefully animated and inbetweened to 
avoid a jiggling motion of the closely placed lines when the animation is 
seen on the screen. No action should be planned for exposure on threes 
when background panning or any other camera movement is required dur- 
ing the action. 



50 




(Jt, I O0'_> .j t, .;. 



hHE-) <& d ,; 

(toV Fr 




<y 



^^-^sswfc 

Mi J.^m^ ~*Z$~" 

/m '. ,. r**,*.?] . , ,- 



! 
11 



it 

,L,' 



V 
It 



'* r 
" 

.; I 

u 



^ 



te 



i 



*7 

f7 



.i ^ 
^ <g 



: f*a)<- 



)) 
*N 





^ 
_c_ 





j 



f 

/> 

4,0 X 



"^ 



ix 



^, ^./ ,-nt 



!- 

r 





f^ 



-.1- 




fe5 




Exposure sheet showing Mr. Wimple being animated 
on twos while the background moves on ones. 



Exposure sheet showing one eel level moving on 
ones, another on twos, and a third on threes. 




51 



PRODUCTION / Animation 



Animation 



An animator's value to a studio largely depends upon how well he knows all 
phases of animation, for he can only take full advantage of all established 
short cuts if he has sound all-round knowledge of animation studio pro- 
cedures. 

Some of the most frequently used time and labor savers include the clever 
use of repeat actions, the use of animation on twos whenever possible, com- 
bining drawings for the purpose of reducing the number of eel levels, and 
the elimination of unnecessary retracing through the use of hold eels. 

By taking advantage of such short cuts and other efficient methods, the 
animator will not only save considerable time of his own but also help cut 
the studio's production costs. 



The Animation Board 



The animation board differs from other drawing boards in two ways : 1 ) Pro- 
vision is made for the registration of drawings through the use of pegs; 2) 
the center portion is made of glass and is lighted from underneath. 

The animation boards shown here have two sets of pegs, one set at the top 
and the other at the bottom. With this arrangement, it is possible to animate 
on either set of pegs and still have another on which to register a background 
or other drawing that is to move independently. 

The peg arrangement ensures a great degree of registration accuracy for 
the studio worker, but those working at home can achieve positive registra- 
tion through the use of crosses and circles. This method is widely used 
throughout the advertising and printing fields. 

Some animation boards are on a swivel so that they can be turned in any 
direction. The swivel animation board is usually used only by the inker for 
whom it was originally designed in order to make it easier to trace certain 
types of lines, such as circles or arcs. 



52 




An animation board on a 
swivel. The sheet of anima- 
tion paper, placed over the 
glass section, is held in posi- 
tion by the pegs. 



Close-up of another anima- 
tion board. The metal plate 
above the top pegs keeps 
several sheets of animation 
paper flat. 




53 



PRODUCTION / Animation 



Exposure sheet showing how 
the action of the pendulum 
could be continued indefi- 
nitely by repeated photo- 
graphing of the five drawings. 



Extremes 





HITUM 


Mill 




10. 


se 






















,y, 








2 




6" 




1 


t 


1 


4 


DIAL 


, 








w 


i 

2 










3 


a 










Js 


4 










(f) 


5 










ff^ 


e 










3 


7 










x 


a 










CZ) 


9 










v 


/ 










5 


i 










J- 


2 










(& 


3 










<P 


4 










a, 


8 










y 


e 










V 


7 

a 










5 

f 


e 
Vo 
i 

2 










V 












V 












i 












^ 


3 o 










3 


i 













2 










Cj | 


3 
4 





An extreme is a key drawing made by an animator. Key drawings do not 
usually make up an entire action, but they are sufficient to guide the in- 
betweener from one position of the character or object being animated to 
another. Other extreme drawings continue the action from the point of the 
last extreme drawing. 

The illustrations show both extreme and inbetween drawings; they also 
show the spacing guides the animator places on his extreme drawings for 
the inbetweener to follow. These two illustrations apply to the animation of 
cartoon characters as well as to objects. 

In example A, let us imagine the swinging of a clock pendulum as the 
action being animated. Normally, in any animated scene, each of these 
positions would be a separate drawing on a separate sheet of animation pa- 
per. Here, however, we have combined them in one illustration for clarity 
and ease in identification. 

Drawings 1 and 5 are the extreme drawings made by the animator. Notice 
that on the spacing guide he has called for evenly spaced movements. The 
inbetweener is then responsible for making drawings 2, 3 and 4 exactly as 
shown in example A. 

In example B, drawings 1 and 5 are again the extremes. This time, how- 
ever, the animator wishes to slow the action of the pendulum as it reaches 
the end of its arc. In his spacing guide, he has indicated exactly the amount 
of slowdown he desires. Here, too, drawings 2, 3 and 4 are the inbetween 
drawings. Notice, however, the difference in spacing from example A. When 
the animator wants the spacing of the drawings for an action to change, such 
spacing notes are indicated on the last extreme drawing before the change 
in spacing is to occur. 

Should the animator wish to continue the swinging action of the pendu- 
lum for a required film length, he would simply indicate the numbers of the 
drawings on the exposure sheet. No new drawings would have to be made. 
For instance, if the action starts with the pendulum at one end of the arc, 
as in example A, the first drawing exposed is number 1. The animator would 
then write numbers 2, 3, 4 and 5 in that order on the exposure sheet. Having 
reached the other end of the arc, the animator would continue with draw- 
ings 4, 3, 2 and back to number 1. Then he could start the whole process 
over again. Thus, by using only five drawings, the animator could continue 
the cycle of action indefinitely. 



54 



EXAMPLE A 



DRAWING 



SPACING 
GUIDE 




XTKM 
DRAWING 



EXAMPLE B 



DRAWING 



SPACING 
GUIDE 




55 



PRODUCTION / Animation 



Timing 




Correct timing is of the utmost importance. The animator must keep in mind 
that an animated action should take the same amount of time the same 
action would take if it were done live. 

For example, if a live performer lifts a heavy object, he must expend con- 
siderable energy. His movements are relatively slow as compared to other 
actions requiring less effort. If this same action is animated, the animated 
character's movements must also be relatively slow. 

The exact film length of most actions to be animated is determined by 
the film editor's analysis of the sound track. By referring to the animation 
director's bar sheets, which have the action broken down into the exact num- 
ber of frames required, the animator can see the exact film length and time 
allotted to any particular scene or action. 

However, sometimes it is necessaiy for the animator to determine the 
length of an animated sequence for which there is no sound-track analysis. 
At such times, the best results can be obtained through the use of a specially 
made stop watch that shows time in seconds and corresponding film footages. 

For accuracy, the animator should clock an action several times and then 
use the over-all average as the timing for that action. The animator, for in- 
stance, may get a reading of six seconds on the first timing, seven seconds 
on the next, and six and one-half seconds on the third. In this case, the ani- 
mator should plan the action to the average, or the six-and-one-half -second 
timing. ( See the timing table in the chapter on Lip Synchronization. ) 

Light travels at a far greater speed than sound. Therefore, when the 
sound track and visual reels are combined, the sound for a particular action 
must appear on the film before the animation. On 35mm film, the sound must 
precede its action by five-sixths of a second, or 20 frames of film, if both the 
picture and sound are to reach the viewer simultaneously. On 16mm film, 
the picture and sound separation is 26 frames. 



35 



PROJECTOR. 



DIRECTION FILM TRAVELS 



V.i 11 ii ifli M ii Llli ii lllTI] I] LllHl u inflllr lull] u mill 1 1 II lD] Ll Tl iTb II I] Jll u u llll u u Jll l] L.' ifl [ l] [P.m II iH M I IT .^l -. I . ~ 



! f.: !.' ;, ill !!M ifllll irlftl L' H L*l LJ II At II !! I* T I' 



PICTURE 



56 



SOUND- 2O FRAMES AI-tEAD OF PICTURE 






35 



FIRST FRAME 

OF AN IMA TION 

t 



i n fTTi ii L: .j 1:1: L: ni 



FRAME OF PICTUR.E 
WITH Wf-l(CU SOUND /S HEARD 



\ II 

: L^UG- -i- - - Ji 



SOUND - 
FRAMES OF LEADER FOOTAGE 



Singing or dialogue should never begin on a scene's first frame of ani- 
mation. The first sound must be spaced so that it is not heard until at least 
the sixth frame. If the scene is the first one on a reel of film, this spacing is 
achieved by starting the sound track on the leader strip which always pre- 
cedes the first frame of a reel. 



The Beat 



A beat, as used in animation, refers to the audible or visual marking of a 
specific interval or period of time. Beat is used to mean both the musical 
beat or tempo and the breakdown of that tempo into taps. A 24 beat would 
mean one tap for each second, or every 24 frames of film. 

If no musical background accompanies an animated scene and the sound 
track is clear, a beat should be established by the animator and used as the 
rhythmic basis for the animated action. Should the animator decide to plan 
his action to a 12 beat, that would be the equivalent of two taps for every 
24 frames of film or two taps per second. 

As the scene or picture progresses, the beat should be quickened to 11, 
or slightly more than two taps each second, then to ten, and finally to a nine 
beat or almost three taps per second. An action does not usually become so 
fast or violent that it becomes necessary to animate to anything faster than a 
nine beat. But if an exceptionally fast action is called for, an animator can 
use an eight or even a seven beat, but practically never any beat faster than 
a seven. The seven beat might be used for such animated actions as chases, 
runaway horses, imminent collisions, or other actions leading to the climax 
of a scene. 

If, when timing with a stop watch, the animator should have difficulty in 
breaking a beat down into taps, the following method may be used with 
fairly accurate results. If one tap to a beat is the required timing, the ani- 
mator should say the word "one." For two taps to a beat, a two-syllable word, 
like "seven," should be used, with one tap for each syllable of the word. For 
three taps to a beat, the animator should use the word "animate," and for 
four taps to the beat, the word "animation," in each case he should tap once 
for each syllable of the word. 



57 



PRODUCTION / Animation 



Accent and Anticipation 



When an animator is working on a scene that has a musical background, he 
should be constantly aware of beats and accents. The best way to accent an 
action is to use a change of pace. If, for example, an animated character is 
running to a definite beat, but the action is all evenly spaced, there will be 
no accented position. However, a change of pace, either slowing down or 
speeding up the character's action will not only emphasize the beat but 
provide an anticipatory action as well. Speeding up the animation between 
accents will have a similar effect. In either case, a change of pace is a neces- 
sity; and the greater the desired accent, the greater the change of pace 
should be. This basic rule can be applied to almost all animated action, in- 
cluding mouth actions. 

Here are some other good rules for the animator to keep in mind. The 
faster the beat, the more accurate the hit or accent must be. Accuracy is 
especially important if the beat is faster than a nine beat. In such cases, the 
hit must occur exactly on the frame with the tap. Where a slower beat is 
used, such as a 12 or 16 beat, the accented action may hit two frames before 
the frame of the tap. These rules also hold true when an animated action is 
being timed to a sound effect rather than a musical beat. 

An accented pose becomes much more emphatic when it is preceded by 
a preparatory action: an anticipation. Anticipation plays a very important 
part in animation. The holding of a static pose before an animated action 
begins can be called an anticipation. A slower action preceding or leading 
up to the action to be accented is also an anticipation. The take, described 
in the next chapter is a wonderful example of anticipation and accent be- 
cause it takes full advantage of the principles described here. 

An accent becomes more emphatic as the time gap between it and the 
anticipatory action increases. The greater the number of frames between the 
two, the greater the impact of the accent. The number of frames between 
the anticipation and the accent will, of course, depend on the previously 
determined film length of the over-all action as recorded on the sound track. 



58 



ANTIC I P ATI ON 




ACCENT- 



59 



PRODUCTION / Animation 



Takes 




The cartoon take, a reaction indicating an element of surprise, is probably 
one of the most frequently used actions in animation and one of the most 
important. There are several types of takes: subdued takes, violent takes 
and double takes. Each has its definite place and function. 

A cartoon character might react in any number of ways during a take. 
The reaction might be only in his facial expression. Or, at the other extreme, 
in violent takes, the cartoon character might fly up in the air, stagger, fall 
backwards or "freeze" completely. In each of these takes, a good anticipatory 
action helps to accent the take itself. 



60 





On these pages are drawings which illustrate a double take. Only the ani- 
mator's extreme poses have been selected to show the sequence of action. 
A double take is used more often than any other take. It occurs when a car- 
toon character first reacts mildly to something he has seen or heard; then, 
with fuller realization of the cause of the initial reaction, the character re- 
acts a second time, this time more violently. This violent reaction causes the 
first take to become an anticipation, a build-up for the more accented move- 
ment, and the over-all action is thereby given more emphasis than could be 
obtained through the use of a single take. 




61 



PRODUCTION / Animation 



The Bouncing Ball 



The bouncing of a ball can serve as an example for many of the principles 
used in animation. 

A bouncing ball follows a definite arc or line of action, which is influenced 
by the laws of gravity. We know, for instance, that when a person jumps 
either horizontally or vertically, it is only a matter of time before he is back 
on the ground, no matter how high the jump. And while the person is in the 
process of jumping, certain movements occur. Although some of these 
movements may be classified as illusions, slow-motion studies show that 
these "illusions" often have substance in reality. 

If an animated cartoon character is to look believable, these same move- 




62 



ments must occur. However, in animation, these movements are often exag- 
gerated. For instance, when a cartoon character jumps, the entire body 
mass seems to stretch out, so that it is similar to the bouncing-ball action in 
positions 8, 9, 15, 16, 21, and 25 in the illustration. The recoil of the jumping 
action is similar to the shape of the ball in positions 5, 6, 12, 13, 18, 19 and 
23. The cartoon character then assumes normal proportions once again, as in 
positions 1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 11, 17, 22, 26 and 27, the positions at the top of the 
bounce. Notice that in positions 7, 14, 20 and 24, the ball has been flattened 
or squashed by its contact with the ground. This is the hit position. 

While the ball's bouncing has been drawn as a smooth, continuous action 
for the purpose of illustrating the above paragraph, the timing of the ball 
in mid-air also helps to explain another principle that is important in bring- 
ing realism to animation. The ball does not move at a constant speed through- 
out its bounce action. The ball moves faster coming down than while going 
up to the top of the arc. Having reached the top of the arc, the ball slows 
down considerably, just as it does at the bottom of the arc in its flattened 
out or hit position. 

Proper timing, and flattened out and elongated positions squash and 




63 



PRODUCTION / Animation 




BACKGKOUND 




ACTION PATH 




SPACING CUOP-T 




POSITIONS FOR THE ANIMATION 



stretch can make the difference between smooth, realistic action and stiff, 
amateurish-looking movement. Therefore, their proper use is one of the most 
important aspects of good animation. 

A spacing chart or action path can be an invaluable guide in animation. 
Plotting the general movement of the animation should be done at every 
opportunity. Combining the arc or path of action with lines showing the 
exact spacing of the object or figure being animated will help to achieve a 
smoother animated action. 



64 



Squash and Stretch 



An animated cartoon character's head and body are built around masses of 
circles and ovals. Exaggeration of these masses so that they squash or stretch 
can help give added expression to the face and figure. However, when an 
animator uses squash and stretch, he should remember to visualize all of the 
forms or masses as solids with normal dimensions. 

Illustrated here is a good example of squash and stretch elasticity in a 
cartoon character. Notice that the basic construction of the character has 
been exaggerated so as to achieve greater facial expression but the charac- 
ter's identity has been maintained. 





65 



PRODUCTION / Animation 



MOOK- UP 



WALK 







STRUT 





RUN 




HIT POSITION 



Movement Cycles 




The figures above represent the movement cycles used most often in ani- 
mation. These cycles are the walk, the strut and the run. 

Over the first and last drawings of each cycle are the words hook-up. The 
term hook-up is used in animation to indicate that the first and last draw- 
ings in a cycle are the same and interchangeable. By repeating an entire 
cycle of drawings, an action can be used over and over for as much film foot- 
age as may be required in a scene or action. 

The figures at the beginning and end of each cycle are in hit positions, 
the positions in which the foot makes solid contact with the ground. The 
animator should draw these positions first since they are the ones that even- 
tually become the key drawings in the action being animated. 

An important rule to follow in animating any movement cycle is that 
the slower the movement of the character being animated, the more upright 
his position should be. For instance, a walk is always slower than a run; in 
a walk, the body may lean forward in the direction the character is facing, 
but the character is still relatively upright as compared to one who is run- 
ning. 

In any movement cycle, except an extremely fast run, the arms always 
move in the opposite direction to that of the legs. In other words, when the 



66 



HOOK-UP 















WIT POSITION 



right leg is in a forward position, the right arm is back and vice versa. The 
faster the action, the more violent the movement of the arms, but the arms 
continue to move in opposition to the direction of the legs. 

For an extremely fast run, however, the rule governing arm movement 
in relation to leg movement does not follow. Since the action of the arms 
would be so fast as to be confusing, it has been established, after a great 
deal of testing, that the best procedure to follow in animating arm action 
for extremely fast runs is to place both arms extended forward in a reaching 
position and to keep them that way. 

When planning a walk to a musical accompaniment, the animator should 
avoid having the character's heel come down on the beat. The action will 
always look better if the hit comes on the flat-footed position. 

In any movement cycle, the cartoon character always faces in the direc- 
tion opposite to the one in which the background is moving. When two or 
more characters are walking or running in a scene and each of the characters 
is on a separate eel level, the animator should continually check their actions 
and positions in relation to each other as well as to the background. This 
kind of checking also enables the animator to match the characters to any 
objects or props on the background. 




67 



PRODUCTION / Animation 



Lip Synchronization 



Lip sync, or mouth action, is as important in animation as the basic accom- 
panying action itself. The rules governing the animation of mouth actions 
are. few and simple; and the simpler the animation of mouth actions, the 
better the results. 

It is not necessary to put each vowel or consonant into lip-sync animation. 
In fact, it is almost impossible to animate an action for each syllable in a 
sentence, and it should not be attempted. The result of such an attempt 
would only be a meaningless pile of animated drawings and much wasted 
effort. 

The animator must first absorb the over-all feeling of the dialogue before 
he can decide which words, syllables or sounds should be accented and 
emphasized. If the animator looks at himself in a mirror while repeating the 
recorded dialogue, it will help him to select and later to draw appropriate 
facial expressions for complete sentences. Having made his decisions, the 
animator's next step is to roughly pencil in the key positions for the mouth 
actions to be accented. The inbetween drawings will usually carry the bal- 
ance of the animated dialogue. 

When a cartoon character is being animated on twos, it is not necessary 
to draw the mouth actions on ones unless the character is speaking rapidly. 
Mouth actions can work as well on twos as they do on ones if the animator 
accents and emphasizes the right words. 

The mouth actions shown in the chart on pages 70 and 71 are the ones used 
most frequently in animated cartoon dialogue. Each group of mouth actions 
shows : 1 ) the start of the formation of a sound, 2 ) the position of the mouth 
during the actual pronunciation of the sound, and 3 ) the closed-mouth posi- 
tion that follows. The vowels are shown in the first five groupings. These 
mouth actions are slightly less exaggerated for singing. 

Surveys have shown that dialogue spoken during a television commercial 
must be considerably slower than dialogue spoken in a radio broadcast. In 
television viewing, both the eye and ear work at the same time, so the effi- 
ciency of one or the other may be considerably lessened. 

Therefore, the table opposite should be followed diligently when tim- 
ing unrecorded dialogue. The right-hand column gives the maximum num- 
ber of words that should be used in the time shown in the left-hand column. 



68 



Maximum Words in a Given Time Period 



TIME 


MAXIMUM WORDS 


K 


second 


1 


1 


second 


2 


2 


seconds 


4 


3 


seconds 


7 


4 


seconds 


9 


5 


seconds 


11 


6 


seconds 


13 


7 


seconds 


16 


8 


seconds 


18 


9 


seconds 


20 


10 


seconds 


22 


15 


seconds 


33 


20 


seconds 


44 


25 


seconds 


55 


30 


seconds 


65 


35 


seconds 


77 


40 


seconds 


88 


45 


seconds 


99 


50 


seconds 


110 


55 


seconds 


120 


1 


minute 


130 


IX 


minutes 


195 


2 


minutes 


260 


3 


minutes 


390 


4 


minutes 


520 


5 


minutes 


650 


10 


minutes 


1,300 


20 


minutes 


2,600 


30 


minutes 


3,900 


40 


minutes 


5,200 


50 


minutes 


6,500 



PRODUCTION / Animation 



Mouth Action 



A 

E 

O 
U 



Also Used For 



R 

C 
L 
Y 
Q 






O 



17 






70 



Mouth Action 




F 
G 
K 
M 
N 
P 
V 
W 



Also Used For 



S 

T, Z 
D, H, X 



B, J 










71 



PRODUCTION / Animation 



Effects 



The cartoonist or animator can only learn how to draw effects through 
observation. Everyday actions must be carefully studied. For example, how 
does a ball bounce? Is its downward speed greater than its upward speed? 
What happens when a drop of water hits a solid surface? How does a cloud 
of dust dissipate? 

Scientists offer pages of explanation to answer these questions, but draw- 
ing these actions realistically is something else again. There are no set rules 
for an animator to follow. Animators have individual styles and draw simi- 
lar actions differently. The only requirement is that the action, regardless 
of the style, must look convincing and realistic when it appears on the screen. 

Effects are very important because they help lend reality to a scene. For 
example, the accompanying illustration uses speed and vibration lines to 
add reality to the basic actions. Other animation effects often used are: dust, 
water splashes, smoke and fire, as well as blur effects which help to indicate 
great speed. These visual effects become even more realistic when accom- 
panied by appropriate sound effects. 

When drawing effects the animator should follow the same rules for indi- 
cating color that he follows when animating the main action. He should 
close all lines on drawings where more than one color tone is to be used so 
that the inker and opaquer can follow the action. 




72 



The beginning of a walking cycle. The 
hand and leg were inked in throughout the 
cycle in order to emphasize the animation. 



Flipping 




In this photograph we see an animator flipping through the drawings in a 
scene. After arranging all the drawings in sequence, with the low numbers 
on the bottom, the animator can flip through them and see an entire action 
unfold before his eyes. An experienced animator can approximate the exact 
timing of the animation sequence. 

Any faults or flaws in the animation become immediately apparent through 
flipping. Individual drawings that need additional work can then be pulled 
out for correction. 

The drawings on the corner of every other page, from 73 to 127, are so ar- 
ranged that they can be animated by flipping. Practice with them and see 
if you can approximate a set timing. 







Shadows 



Unless some special effect is desired, shadows under cartoon characters and 
objects being animated should be kept to a minimum. 

Shadows are used to show the relationship between a character or object 
in the air and the ground line of the background. The basic rule governing 
the size of a shadow in animation is simple: the higher off the ground the 
character or object, the smaller the shadow and vice versa. 



73 



PRODUCTION / The Inbetweener 




The Inbetweener 



The hands shown in the accompanying photograph belong to an inbetweener. 
Special attention should be given to the position of the left hand. This hand 
is used to manipulate the drawings in such a way that at least four are visible 
at the same time. Through such control, the action of the animation can be 
seen as a continuous flow rather than as individual drawings. 

The right hand, of course, holds the pencil and draws in lines as the move- 
ment of the animator's extreme drawings becomes apparent. 



The Inker 



All drawings originally made on animation paper must be meticulously 
traced on eels. This is the inker's job. He uses a crow-quill pen or a fine 
brush, whichever he prefers, and a quality, waterproof ink that will not 
spread or creep. 

It is common practice for the inker to wear white lintless-cotton gloves 
in order to keep the eels as free from smudges as possible. 




The Opaquer 



The opaquer uses a brush to apply the colors, which range from black 
through varying tones of gray to white. The gray tones are numbered from 
one to ten. The lower the number, the lighter the color. 

Although eels are clear and transparent they do have a slight density. As 
a result, when the blank portion of one eel is placed over the opaqued portion 
of another, the eel on top darkens the opaqued color of the eel beneath it 
by one full shade of gray. Therefore, if the same color value or density is 
desired on the opaqued portions of both eels, the upper eel must be opaqued 
one shade darker than the eel beneath it. For example, if the lower eel had 
been opaqued with #1 gray, the eel over it would be painted with #2 gray. 



74 





The inker 



The pens and inks used by the 
inker. Pictured from top to bottom 
are the superflexible crow quill pen 
J62, used for fine lines; the Ester- 
brook #7628, for heavier lines; the 
#63 crow quill, for normal inking; 
and the #64 crow quill pen, for ink- 
ing extremely fine lines. Black India 
ink is in the bottle on the left. The 
other bottle contains black opaque 
water color which is used for filling 
in larger areas. 



An opaquer applying colors to an 
inked eel. A light beneath the glass 
insert on the animation board 
makes it easier for the opaquer to 
work accurately. On the table are 
the brushes and water colors used 
by the opaquer. 



75 



PRODUCTION / The Opaquer 



The opaquer does not work on the inked side of the eel but on the reverse 
side. He does this for two reasons: 1) It permits faster work because he 
does not have to worry about meeting the ink lines precisely a slight over- 
lapping on the reverse side does not show on the inked side; 2) the only 
way to avoid the crude appearance of visible brush marks is to opaque the 
reverse side; when the eel is turned over its surface makes the opaque look 
shiny which eliminates any signs of brush marks. 



Reverse side of an opaqued eel. 




Front side of the same eel. 




Part IV 
Filming 



It is the animation camera and the optical printer 
that turn the hundreds of animation drawings into a 
smooth-flowing, modern, motion picture. The following 
pages introduce the reader to their highly technical 
photographic possibilities. 



77 



FILMING / The Animation Camera 



The Animation Camera 



Certain names are synonymous with the artistic development of animation. 
Walt Disney, Max Fleischer, Paul Terry and others have contributed greatly 
toward making animated films the potent force they are today a medium 
for amusement, education and commerce. No discussion relative to the 
development of the animation industry, however, could be considered com- 
plete without mentioning another pioneer, John Oxberry. Although Oxberry 
began in the animation industiy as a cartoonist, he has been responsible for 
the development of much of the technical equipment in use today. 

The artistic development of animation might never have progressed be- 
yond the cradle stage without the mechanical and technical contributions 
of such men as John Oxberry. They taught the infant to crawl and then to 
walk. And today, thanks to the highly specialized animation equipment 
these men developed, the animation industry takes giant strides with mod- 
ern production methods and effects unattainable a brief 25 years ago. In 
developing equipment to meet today's requirements, the design of all com- 
ponents was correlated in order to achieve maximum accuracy, versatility 
and speed in animation photography. 

Close coordination of the functions of the animation stand, camera, stop- 
motion motor, and compound table the movable working area on which 
the art work is placed has always been the basic aim behind all design and 
redesign of equipment for animated-film production. From the outset, the 
goal has been a combination of the best ideas of the past with unique new 
ideas. This could be realized only by developing components that comple- 
mented one another in order to make maximum flexibility in over-all studio 
production possible. 

Because production of animated films depends, essentially, on accurate 
control of the movements of the camera and the art work, an important 
question was raised: Which movements should be assigned to the camera 
and which to the art work? 

Sound engineering principles dictated that camera movements should be 
minimized since minor alignment errors are greatly magnified on film. There- 
fore, newly designed equipment confines camera movements to the vertical 
and allots all horizontal movements to the compound table top. This provides 
great latitude in mechanical design and opens countless new avenues for 
the director in planning animated sequences. 



78 




The working area or table top of an 
animation stand. A finished eel is 
being placed over the background. 
The two sets of pegs on the table 
top exactly match those on the ani- 
mator's drawing board. 




The glass platen, the frame of the 
table top, is now in shooting posi- 
tion and the art work is ready to be 
photographed. 




79 



FILMING / The Animation Camera 



1 \<-J 
* I 



7 - 



10 

/.. 



Listed here are the more important parts of the animation stand and their 
various functions : 



1. Automatic cut-offs. These establish the extreme positions of the zoom mechanism. 

2. Field-position bar. Numerical markings on this bar indicate the size of the area to 

be photographed. For example, a number 9 position would indicate a field size 
9 inches wide. 

3. Stop-motion mechanism. Although the camera mounted on the animation stand 

is a motion-picture camera, this specially constructed motor drive, a stop-motion 
mechanism, permits the cameraman to photograph one frame of film at a time. 

4. The camera. 

5. Follow focus cams. These cams automatically adjust focus, thereby relieving the 

cameraman of the tedious task of changing focus for each move in relation to the 
field-position bar. 

6. Floating pegs. Because these pegs remain in a fixed position at all times, they give 

an accurate registry of the original table position regardless of any subsequent 
table movements. 

1. The table top. The table top is the movable working area of the animation stand 
on which the art work is placed. 

8. Traveling pegtracks. These tracks, top and bottom, enable the cameraman to move 

the art work or eels with a greater degree of accuracy. The two controls at the 
front of the table are attached to counters for more accurate positioning. 

9. The compound table. The table top is set on the compound movement in such a 

way that any movement can be made, including the rotation of the table, without 
interfering with any of the other movements. 

10. The control panel. A motorized unit that permits the cameraman to make table-top 

moves, spins and zooms by motor rather than by hand turning or cranking. 

11. Split-nut control. This enables the cameraman to engage or disengage any of the 

compound movements so that the table can be moved freely by hand to any de- 
sired position. 



81 



FILMING / The Optical Printer 



The Optical Printer 




The optical printer represents one of the most important developments in 
the motion-picture industry: photographic effects previously impossible to 
achieve. First cousin to the animation camera, which photographs art work, 
the optical printer photographs film. The printer is basically a projection 
head in sync with a motion-picture camera. 

The optical cameraman can shoot the projected motion-picture film frame 
by frame to make an exact copy. Or he can enlarge or reduce portions of any 
frame during the copying process. In addition, he can further change the 
original film by eliminating frames or by repeating one frame. 

An action, either live or animated, can be slowed down, speeded up or 
reversed. Reversing the film provides such laugh-producing effects as the 
swimmer returning to the diving board from the water. 



82 





Combining more than one piece of film is now a routine task for the 
cameraman. It is this technique that makes it possible to superimpose titles, 
originally shot on the animation stand, over live-action scenes. 

One of the more important effects is the fading out of one scene and the 
fading in of another. When this occurs at the same time and place on a strip 
of film, it is known as a cross-dissolve. 

Other possibilities are flip effects, where a still frame may go into a spin 
and eventually introduce an entirely new scene; wipes; and multiple-image 
shots. 

It is not practical to list here all the effects that can be produced through 
use of the optical printer. They are limited only by the imaginations of the 
directors and film editors. 



83 




PartV 

The 6E Commercial 



The animation of this one-minute commercial is dis- 
cussed scene by scene. The exposure sheets and the 
important drawings are explained in detail in order 
to show how all elements of an animated film are 
brought together to form a unified whole. 



85 




The 6E Commercial 



The drawings reproduced on these pages were made during the production 
of the GE one-minute commercial. They are arranged in their proper se- 
quence as exposed (recorded) on the exposure sheets. Although most of 
them are the animator's extremes, some inbetween drawings are included 
to show how a particular action was developed. (The term "expose," as used 
in these pages, refers either to the process of photographing, that is, to expose 
a frame of film, or to the recording of eel numbers on exposure sheets in the 
sequence in which they will be photographed. ) 

Exposure sheet #1 of Scene 1 shows that three eel levels are exposed over 
the background. One of these eel levels, the blank eel, is exposed in order to 
keep a uniform density over the background throughout the scene. The 
blank eels were indicated on the exposure sheets by the animator after he 
had exposed (recorded) all the eels to be photographed and found the eel 
levels inconsistent. 



87 



THE GE COMMERCIAL / Scene 1 



T" 




,. 










n? 






Scene 1 



88 





Js. 





~J 



I . 





-4- 




! 








-t 



All the extreme drawings, as well as several important inbetween drawings, 
used in the opening animation sequence of the one-minute commercial are 
shown here. A total of 114 drawings was used for the entire Scene 1 action. 
Of this total, 35 were animator's extremes or key drawings. The 229 frames 
of film for the opening scene have a projection or screen time of approxi- 
mately 9/2 seconds. 



89 



THE GE COMMERCIAL / Scene 1 



-4- 



-f- 





4- 




w 













. 









90 



















lol 




91 



THE GE COMMERCIAL / Scene 1 



Exposure sheet 1, Scene 1. 




92 



Column 4 of exposure sheet #1, shows a series of drawings numbered from 
1 to 24. These drawings make up the cycle of Mr. Wimple walking. The 
twenty-four drawings actually combine to make only two steps; however, 
drawing 1 has been animated so that it hooks up with drawing 24 to start 
the cycle over again. By repeating the cycle, it is possible to show Mr. Wim- 
ple walking. In fact, by using the same twenty-four drawings over and over 
again, he could be kept walking for the entire length of the one-minute com- 
mercial, or indefinitely for that matter. 

Column 3 on exposure sheet #1 shows a hold eel numbered R-l exposed 
along with the walk cycle. Cel R-l is Mr. Wimple's hand holding the radio. 
The drawing for this eel was designed by the animator to match any of the 
twenty-four drawings in the walk cycle, thereby eliminating the necessity 
of retracing the hand and radio on each of the twenty-four drawings. Con- 
tinuous retracing of the hand and radio might have resulted in uneven ink 
lines which produce a jiggling effect when seen on the screen. Through the 
use of R-l, the hold eel, this possibility was avoided. 

For this twenty-four-drawing cycle, the animator drew the hold eel, R-l, 
and extreme drawings 1, 5, 9, 13, 17 and 21. Drawings 2, 3, and 4, shown in 
the accompanying illustrations, were made by the inbetweener, as were the 
remainder of the drawings of the repeat cycle which are not shown here. 

The animator's notes on the right-hand side of the extreme drawings are 
guides for the spacing of the inbetweener's drawings. Compare the spacing 
notes on the repeat cycle of the walk with the spacing called for by the-ani- 
mator on drawing 28 where the walk cycle has ended and the cartoon char- 
acter has begun to slow down before coming to a full stop. As can be seen 
on the spacing chart on drawing 28, the inbetweened drawing 29 is evenly 
spaced between extreme 28 and the combination of two other extremes, 
32 and L-l. The next inbetweened drawing, 30, is evenly spaced between 
drawing 29 and extremes 32 and L-l, as is drawing 31. The animator, by 
means of this spacing, has slowed down his action to the desired smooth and 
well-timed stop. 

In the column under "Action," the animator has written a brief description 
of the animation alongside the corresponding drawings. For this portion of 
the scene, the animator has simply indicated, "Mr. Wimple walking along 
radio to ear." 

With Mr. Wimple at a full stop, the animator has again made use of the 
hold eel. This time, a separate drawing, L-l, has been made combining 
Wimple's legs and feet. No matter what the cartoon character's head and 
body actions may be, the inker will not have to trace Mr. Wimple's legs and 
feet on any drawings for the length of time he remains in a static pose. 





\G> 



They have been drawn so that they 
can hook up and thereby make 
repetition of the cycle possible. 



Spacing guide for the walk cycle. 



(2.8) I 




Spacing guide for drawings 28-32 . 



93 



THE GE COMMERCIAL / Scene 1 




Bottom o/ exposi/re s/ieef 1, Scene 1 . 
Top of exposure sheet 2, Scene 1 . 



94 




The column under the word "Track" contains the sound-track dialogue, 
as analyzed by the film editor. At frame 60 on exposure sheet #1 (for frame 
numbers, look at the column under "Dial" ) , our cartoon hero makes his first 
sound, a history making "Oh, Pooh!" Up to this point, with the exception of 
a musical beat during the walk cycle, the animator had not been concerned 
with any sound track sync. Mr. Wimple had remained silent while listening 
to the radio he held in his hand. For the length of the walk cycle, the ac- 
companying music on the sound track was full of static and rather annoy- 
ing, to give contrast to the fine tone and dependability of the GE transistor 
radio shown later in the one-minute commercial. 

At drawing 52, Mr. Wimple's head is the only part of the cartoon charac- 
ter still animating. As in the case of hold eels R-l and L-l used previously, 
drawing 52 is also made to be used as a hold eel on a separate level. 

The reason for exposing a blank eel at the beginning of the scene now 
becomes obvious, since, at this point, all three eel levels are being used. 
Column 1, which would have been used if the animator had needed four 
levels at any time during the scene, remains empty on the exposure sheets. 
Column 2 lists L-l, the eel with Wimple's legs. The hold eel of Mr. Wimple's 
body, drawing 52, is in column 3, while column 4 lists the head and mouth 
actions. 




Col. 2 on exposure sheet (legs). 



Col. 3 on exposure sheet (radio). 



Col. 4 on exposure sheet (Wimple). 



s 




4- 



-f 






L-l, drawing for hold eel. 



Blank eel inserted to keep color tones 
consistent throughout the scene. 



47, drawing for action eel. 









L-l, drawing for hold eel of legs. 



52, drawing for hold eel of body and radio. 



53, drawing for action eel of head. 



THE GE COMMERCIAL / Scene 1 



96 




Bottom of exposure sheet 2, Scene 1 . 
Top of exposure sheet 3, Scene 1. 





ffl 

H 
8X 

I 



(tut* 



T , ^..j 

11 

* 

* 



i 



e* 



e* 





i-l 



17 



Beginning with drawing 60, Mr. Wimple's body is no longer in a station- 
ary pose. Therefore drawing 52, the hold eel of the body, is replaced with 
a blank eel in order to keep the number of levels used over the background 
at three. 

At this point of the opening scene, Mr. Wimple is quite angry. The sound- 
track column shows him saying: "What's the matter with you, you little 
beast?" This speech is, of course, directed at the old radio model he has been 
holding. 

Drawings 60 through 71 show Mr. Wimple shaking the radio angrily. 
Beginning with drawing 75, the violent shaking of the radio has subsided. 
Mr. Wimple's body, drawing 75, becomes a hold eel and only the arm hold- 
ing the radio continues animating. 




Up to this point, the hold eels have been exposed on the lower levels, those 
closest to the background. The hold eel of the body, drawing 75, however, 
is exposed on the top level so that the arm holding the radio does not have 
to be matched to the body. The drawing of the arm is extended beyond the 
line of the body so that the hold eel of the body covers the area which other- 
wise would have had to be matched. If hold eel 75 had been exposed on the 
third level, drawings 76 through 81 would all have had to be matched to 
hold eel 75. Drawing 81, the last of the arm-movement drawings, would 
also have had to be retraced and matched to each of the three drawings of 
Wimple's body following hold eel 75. 



97 



THE GE COMMERCIAL / Scene 1 



Exposure sheet 3, Scene 1-2. 




98 





97 




Beginning with drawing 85, Mr. Wimple reaches into the radio and re- 
moves the batteries. On the sound track, at frame 176 of exposure sheet #3, 
the cartoon character begins to speak again. He says: "Your batteries are 
dead again." These five words of dialogue require forty-seven frames, con- 
tinuing to frame 223 of exposure sheet #3. 

Attention is directed, at this point, to the dialogue spelling on the "Track" 
column of the exposure sheet. This is not an example of poor spelling by 
the animator. These words were spelled phonetically, as they sounded on 
the sound track, in order to indicate the basic sounds and syllables to be 
accented and emphasized in the animation of the lip movements. The sounds 
were indicated at the exact frames where they occur. 

Mr. Wimple, having removed the batteries from the radio, is in a still 
position at drawing 96, and a hold eel is made of that static pose. Only his 
mouth is animating in drawings 97 through 102. At the end of his little 
speech, Wimple looks down at the dead batteries he is holding- and throws 
them over his shoulder and out of the scene. 

With the exception of the walk cycle at the beginning, Mr. Wimple's 
legs, drawing L-l, have been held in a still position throughout the scene, 
resulting in a saving of many hours of needless retracing and opaquing by 
the inker and colorer. The other hold eels used in various places throughout 
the scene have added to the great saving in production time and costs. 

The lines and numbers on model drawings R-l, L-l and 111 indicate the 
colors to be used by the opaquer in coloring the various areas of the eels. 
These colors, black, white and shades of gray, are selected by the animation 
director and layout man after several sample eels have been opaqued and 
tried out over the background to be used with the scene. 





7 7 




R-l, color model. 




L-l, color model. 



114, last drawing of Scene 1. 



Ill, color model. 




99 



THE GE COMMERCIAL / Scene 2 








i! 












"(T 



Scene 2 



100 







(33 









The drawings shown here are from Scene 2. The total number of drawings 
required for this scene, including the animator's extremes, was 60. 

All of the drawings required for the entire opening animation sequence, 
Scenes 1 and 2, covering 24 feet of film, totaled 174. At the end of this second 
scene of animation, there is an optical cross-dissolve to the live-action sec- 
tion of the commercial. The projection time from the start of Scene 1 to 
the middle of the cross-dissolve to the live action is exactly 16 seconds. 



101 



THE GE COMMERCIAL / Scene 2 





4- J 





Opaqued eels from Scene 2. The 
first eel has been placed over the 
background. 



102 






A"** ' 
' < P 



# 







/to 



J42. 





103 



THE GE COMMERCIAL / Scene 2 



Immediately below frame 229 of exposure sheet #3, a heavy line has been 
drawn across the page. This indicates a cut and the beginning of a new 
scene. This new scene, Scene 2, is a continuation of the action in the preced- 
ing scene. 

Scene 2 is a close-up: a scene that is shot so that the subject matter ap- 
pears in an unusually close relationship to the camera. For instance, a nor- 
mal camera shot of an actor might show his complete figure, but a close-up 
shot of the same actor would show only the head, hands or some other area 
to be emphasized. 

The still background for this scene is a solid color or tone matching the 
color of the buildings in the pan background used in Scene 1. 

Scene 2 begins with frame 230. The animation again uses three eel levels. 




Bottom of exposure sheet 3, Scene 1-2. 
Top of exposure sheet 4, Scene 2. 




MiUM HUT II 



104 



ww 
$~ 


<j 
iti 

ll 


7 

mni 

IMMi 




6.< 


f <30C*J/tJf, T MUTM 

v~ nut u. 


mu. 

\ 


Ull 

T 


HUT, 
Ul 


n 


nm 


u_ . x ; . rr^nrTj ;* 




Ml 


^ ^ 










'l> 








it*, 






s/ 










'- 


1 






, ij.^4 













1 : 




', 








fw 












* Jf 












i*r 






/ 










\ 








^*^X C 1 .^' 2^ 




| 








1 



The first drawing, 115, in column 2, the eel level nearest the background, 
has the hand, arm and radio in a static pose similar to that shown in draw- 
ing 114, the last drawing used in Scene 1. Drawing 116, exposed in column 
3, consists of Mr. Wimple's head and body. Beginning with drawing 117, 
the third or top level has the mouth actions for the dialogue which opens 
the scene. Mr. Wimple is saying, "And just when I need a radio most." This 
arrangement of eel levels continues to frame 253. At that point, all three 
levels are combined on one eel, drawing 126, and two blank eels are exposed 
in order to keep the color density of the scene consistent. 

In the sequence of action beginning with drawing 126, a good example 
of anticipation is shown. The expression on Mr. Wimple's face helps support 
the animated action that follows. 












= 



115, drawing for hold eel. 



116, drawing for hold eel. 



117, drawing for mouth action. 



. 



Blank eel. 



126, drawing for action eel. 



Blank eel 



105 



THE GE COMMERCIAL / Scene 2 



Exposure sheet 4, Scene 2 



106 




At frame 275, there is another hold eel, drawing 137. It was made in order 
to avoid additional retracing and opaquing. Mr. Wimple's mouth actions 
are drawn and exposed on a separate level. 

The word "most," ending the dialogue, is spoken as the anticipation 
builds up to the accent. The climax is reached with the sound effect of the 
crash, which is synchronized with the animation so that it is heard at the 
point when Mr. Wimple's fist smashes into the radio. 

Because of the comparatively violent action of the smashing of the radio, 
all eel levels have been combined, starting with drawing 142. The animated 
effects beginning on drawing 148 and continuing through drawing 152 help 
emphasize the main action and are very important to the animation. The 
facial expressions and poses' in the drawings used before and after the 
violent action also help lend reality to the animated sequence. The vigorous 
manner in which Mr. Wimple says "Phooey!" not only ends the dialogue 
in the scene but causes his hat to bounce off his head, as shown in drawings 
157 to 166. Although this hat action was not indicated in the story board, 
the animator added it to emphasize the sound effect of the Bronx cheer 
which accompanied the word "Phooey." 

Little auxiliary actions, such as the hat's bounce have almost the same 
effect in animation as facial expressions and hand gestures. They help 
accent and emphasize other actions which otherwise might be dull and 
routine. 





Blank eel 



137, drawing for hold eel. 



138, drawing for action eel. 






itz 




107 



THE GE COMMERCIAL / Scene 2 



Exposure sheet 5, Scene 2. 




108 



ff 



At frame 369 on exposure sheet #5, a cross-dissolve to the live-action 
part of the commercial is indicated. The cross-dissolve to live is written on 
the exposure sheet by the animator as a direction to the animation camera- 
man. In this case, the cross-dissolve does not require any drawing or addi- 
tional work by either the animator or the animation cameraman, since the 
animated scene ends with Mr. Wimple in a static pose. The animation 
cameraman will simply photograph the hold-position eel for the number 
of frames in the cross-dissolve. If, for example, the desired length of the 
cross-dissolve is one foot, the cameraman will photograph the hold position 
for 16 frames. A two-foot cross-dissolve would require 32 frames. 

The cross-dissolve itself will be done by the optical cameraman, who will 
first copy the film made by the animation cameraman. Then starting at the 
exact frame where the cross-dissolve is to begin, the optical cameraman 
will fade out the animation in the required number of frames. When the 
fade-out has been completed, the optical cameraman will then reverse the 
direction of the camera and go back to the frame where the fade-out began. 
He will complete the cross-dissolve by fading in the live-action scene over 
the same portion of the film containing the fade-out of the animation. This 
method of overlapping two scenes is one of the most widely used effects 
in motion pictures, both live and animated. 



Last drawing of Scene 2 
held for cross-dissolve. 




109 



THE GE COMMERCIAL / Scene 3 










4- 



x 





t_ 




**. 



, i -... 



Scene 3 








CM 






J 








Shown here are all of the extreme drawings that were used in the final scene 
of the one-minute commercial. 

This scene cross-dissolves optically from the live-action portion of the 
picture. From the middle of the cross-dissolve ending the live action to the 
end of the commercial, the projection time is 6 2/3 seconds. For this closing 
10 feet of animation, a total of 52 drawings was needed, 14 of them extremes. 

The number of drawings required for the two opening scenes of animation 
and the closing scene totaled 226. The three scenes used 34 feet of film and 
the projection time totaled 22 2/3 seconds. 



Ill 



THE GE COMMERCIAL / Scene 3 



Bottom of exposure sheet 1, Scene 3. 




Opaqued eels 1 , 2, and 3 
over their background. 




1, drawing for hold eel. 




2, drawing for hold eel 




3, drawing for action eel. 



The same procedure followed in cross-dissolving to the live sequence from 
the animation at the end of Scene 2 is now exactly reversed in cross-dissolving 
from the live sequence to the start of the animation of Scene 3. The cross- 
dissolve from the live portion of the commercial begins at frame 1257 and 
ends at frame 1304, exactly 48 frames or three feet later. 

The same background used in Scene 2 is again used in Scene 3, the 
closing scene of animation. A three-level scene, drawing 1 is exposed in 
column 2, or the level nearest the background. On this hold eel, Mr. 
Wimple's hand is shown holding the new GE transistor radio featured in the 
commercial. Because the transistor radio used in this scene is the product 
being advertised.it was drawn realistically, from a photograph of the actual 
radio used in the live sequence, as compared with the stylized draw- 
ing of a radio used in the two opening animation scenes. Drawing 2 in 
column 3 on the exposure sheet, another hold eel, has Mr. Wimple's body 
and right arm. Only the head is animating. Beginning with drawing 3, the 
head is exposed in column 4, the top level. 

On the sound track, Mr. Wimple says: "What a Jim Dandy gift." This 
dialogue begins at frame 1351 of exposure sheet #2 and ends forty-five 
frames later on exposure sheet 3, frame 1396. In preparing for the dialogue, 
drawings 4 through 10 contain another good example of anticipation. Al- 
though Mr. Wimple has not yet begun to speak, the facial expressions be- 
come the anticipation for the dialogue that follows. Wimple's eyes slowly 
open and his smile widens in pure contentment before the first syllable 
is uttered. The subtlety of this anticipation contrasts with other anticipa- 
tions in the film which preceded more violent animated actions. 



112 



Top of exposure sheet 2, Scene 3. 





Anticipation series. 



113 



THE GE COMMERCIAL / Scene 3 



Bottom of exposure sheet 2, Scene 3. 





At drawing 11, Mr. Wimple begins to speak. His right hand, motionless 
during the anticipation and at the start of the dialogue, begins animating 
at frame 1365, drawing 33. These hand gestures help emphasize Mr. Wim- 
ple's dialogue. At frame 1404, after the dialogue has ended, Mr. Wimple 
goes into a static pose which he holds for the balance of the scene. 





At frame 1440, the last frame of the one-minute commercial, the ani- 
mator has written a note on the exposure sheet directing the animation 
cameraman to photograph forty-eight frames or three additional feet of 
film of Mr. Wimple in the final static pose. This is what is known as bumper 
footage. It is added to the end of each commercial as a standard operating 
procedure. 



Exposure sheet 3, Scene 3. 



I I I 4 Ml 

KTfttr 




115 



116 





In Conclusion.*. 



So ends the production of an animated cartoon. The film has been "canned," 
the camera lights have been turned down, and the production crew has 
dispersed for a deserved rest following a job well done. 

In the morning, the processed film will be screened. Anxious eyes will 
critically scan the projected film and an audible sigh of relief will accompany 
the smiles of the artists as they make their way back to their various de- 
partments, ready to tackle the next script and story board. 

The combined talents of approximately fifty people were needed to pro- 
duce the General Electric animated commercial discussed in these pages. 
This total does not include the crew and actors necessary for the live-action 
sequences or the lab personnel who processed the film. Neither does it in- 
clude the group of technicians present at the sound-recording session or 
other "behind-the-scenes" personnel. 

I bow to all of the talented and dedicated people in the animation in- 
dustry in this country and throughout the world. Many of them have 
helped make my twenty-eight years in animation seem like a very short 
period of time. To them, I can only say, "thanks" and "keep those pencils 
sharpened and those cameras rolling." 



117 




Appendix 



119 



Glossary of Terms 



The following list of definitions and abbreviations is accepted by all animation studios, 
both theatrical and commercial. 



ABBREVIATION TERM 
Act. Action 



Anim. 



App. 



Bkgd. 



Bt. 



B. P. 



Animation 
Animation Board 

Answer Print 
Anticipation 



Approach 

(also Truck, Dolly 
or Zoom) 

Background 



Bar Sheets 

(also Lead Sheets) 



Beat 



Bottom Pegs 



Brk. Dwn. Break Down 



Cam. 



Bumper Footage 



Camera (Animation) 



DEFINITION 

The series of events and movements that 

make up an animated film. 

The preparation of animated cartoons. 

A standard drawing board with minor 
adaptations for the needs of animation. 

See Optical Print 

A preparatory action leading up to an 
accented pose. Its purpose is to give added 
emphasis to the accent. 

The movement of a camera from a long shot 
of a scene to a close-up of the same scene, 
or vice versa. 

The part of a scene farthest from the 
camera. Also, the scenery or ground against 
which the drawings are photographed. 

A complete record of a film in term's of 
single frames. The sheets show the exact 
length of each syllable of each word for the 
portion of the film to be animated. 

The musical tempo used for timing or 
synchronizing sound. 

The lower set of pegs on an animation board 
or camera compound table used for 
registering drawings, eels or backgrounds. 

A notation placed on drawings when an 
animator has been working loosely, leaving 
wide spaces between his extremes. The 
notation, Brk. Dwn., tells an assistant that 
he should make any intermediate drawings 
needed before the inbetweener can go to 
work. 

Extra footage of the opening or final shot of 
a film, which is added as standard 
procedure. 

A motion-picture camera with special 
adjustments for the needs of animation. 



120 



ABHHEVIATION TERM 
Cel 



C. U. 



Col. 



C. D. 



Diag. 

Dial. 

DX 

Dwg. 



Cel Level 



Close-Up 

(also Close Shot) 



Colorer 
Color Model 
Complete Drawing 



Comp. Print Composite Print 



Cross-Dissolve 
(also X-Dissolve) 



Cut 

Dailies (also Rushes) 



Diagonal 

Dialogue 
Double Exposure 
Drawing 
Expose 



Exposure Sheets 
( also X Sheets ) 



DEFINITION 

A sheet of transparent celluloid or acetate 
on which the lines of a drawing are traced. 
The sheet is the same size as the animation 
drawing paper; it is .005 inch thick and 
punched to fit over the registration pegs on 
an animation board. 

The number of separate drawings or eels 
placed one over the other and photographed 
at the same time. 

A scene or action photographed from such a 
short distance that only a small part of the 
subject fills a frame of film. A close-up 
of an actor might show his head or, perhaps, 
only his eyes or mouth. 

See Opaquer 

See Model Drawing 

A notation placed on a drawing when an 
animator has only drawn the part of a 
cartoon character that is animating. The 
notation, C. D., tells his assistant that he 
should complete the drawing. 

A print that has both the picture portion 
and the sound track combined on one piece 
of film. 

An optical or camera effect in which one 
scene fades out and another fades in over 
the same frames of film. 

The direct, abrupt end of a scene or action. 

The rough prints of the previous day's live 
shooting from which the best takes will be 
selected. 

Used to describe a pan background move or 
a camera angle. 

The speech recorded on the sound track. 
Two exposures on the same frame of film. 
The picture of a cartoon character or object. 

This term has two meanings: 1) the 
process of photographing, that is, a 
cameraman exposes a frame of film; 2) the 
listing of the animation drawings in their 
proper sequence on the exposure sheets. 

A record of every frame of animation. The 
sheets include a description of the sound 
track and the order in which each eel is to 
be photographed, as well as background 
notes and camera instructions. 



/-' 



121 



ABBREVIATION TERM 



DEFINITION 



Extremes 



F. 



Fin. 

Fol. 
Ft. 

Ftg. 

Forgnd. 

Fr. 

H 



H. U. 



Inb. 
Inbtr. 
In. or ' 



Fade 



Field, Field Size 



Final 
Fine Grain 

Follows 
Foot, Feet 

Footage 
Foreground 
Frame (also X) 

Hit 

Hold 

Hold Gel 
Hook Up 



Inbetween (Drawings) 



Inbetweener 



Inch, Inches 



The key drawings of an action or scene made 
by an animator. They do not show the entire 
action, but are sufficient to guide the 
inbetweener who will make the balance of 
the drawings for the scene. 

An optical or camera effect in which each 
successive frame of film receives 
progressively less exposure until the final 
frame of the scene is completely black. Also, 
the fading in of a scene from black or the 
fading out to black. 

The size of the area to be photographed. 
The abbreviation is usually preceded by a 
number to indicate the actual field size. For 
example, 9 F. would indicate a shooting 
area measuring 9 inches horizontally. 

The last. The last shot of a scene or film. 

The live action or animation film that is 
copied by the optical cameraman. 

To go or come after in natural sequence. 

A standard linear measurement used for 
measuring film. 

A length of film. 

The part of a scene nearest to the camera. 

A single exposure or picture on a strip of 
film. 

The exact moment of accent. 

Used to indicate a stop position for drawings 
or pan backgrounds when they are being 
photographed. 

A eel that is held still for several frames 
during some portion of an animated 
sequence. 

Used to indicate that the first and last 
drawings of an action are the same and 
interchangeable. It is usually used in walk 
sequences or other repeat actions to 
establish the cycle. 

The drawings that come in between an 
animator's extreme drawings. 

The artist who makes the inbetween 
drawings. 

A standard linear measurement used for 
marking moves on background pans. 



122 



ABBREVIATION TERM 

Inker 
Inking 

Interlock 



Lap Dissolve 



L. 

Lip Sync. 



Lead Sheets 
Left 

Lip Synchronization 
Live Action 



L. S. 



M. 



Long Shot 

(also Establishing 
Shot) 



Match 



Med. Shot Medium Shot 



DEFINITION 



The artist who traces drawings on eels. 

The process of transferring an animator's 
drawings to eels. 

The process whereby the picture reel and 
the sound track reel are run at the same 
time for the purpose of checking their 
temporary synchronization. 

The same as a cross-dissolve. "Lap" is the 
abbreviation for overlapping. 

See Bar Sheets 

Used to indicate the direction of movement 
of an animated action or pan background. 

The animation of mouth actions to fit the 
dialogue recorded on the sound track. 

A complete film or sequences of a film in 
which live actors or real objects are 
photographed instead of drawings. An 
animated commercial often has sections of 
live action. 

A scene or action photographed from a 
distance so that a large area of the setting 
appears on a frame of film, and individual 
actors or objects appear quite small. The 
opposite of a close-up. 

Used to indicate that a drawing or eel 
should be fitted to another drawing or to an 
object or prop on the background. 

A scene that is photographed from a medium 
distance so that the full figure of an actor or 
cartoon character fills an entire frame. It is 
between a close-up and a long shot. 




Mod. 



O. R. 



Model, Model Drawing 
(also Color Model) 



Mood Music 



Moviola 



Off Register 



Ones, Twos or Threes 



A drawing that is marked with numbers to 
indicate the colors to be used by the 
opaquer. 

Background music that establishes a mood 
and accompanies the action. 

A mechanism used by a film editor in 
synchronizing the visual reel of a film with 
the sound track. 

Used to indicate off-center positioning and 
certain effects in photography such as 
vibrations. 

The number of frames on which a eel is 
to be photographed. 



123 



ABBREVIATION TERM 



DEFINITION 



Opaquer (also Colorer) 
Opaquing 



Optical Print 

(also Answer Print) 



Opt. Printer Optical Printer 



O-lay 



P. T. 

Pos. 

Post Sync. 
Pre Sync. 
Prod. 



Reg. 



Overlay 

Pan 

Pan Background 

Pencil Test 

Position 

Post Synchronized 
Pre Synchronized 
Production 

Raw Stock 
Reel 

Register, Registry 
Release Print 



An artist who colors the eels. 

The coloring of eels with opaque water 
colors. 

The first combination of animation and live 
action. It is used for checking the continuity 
of the filmed picture with the story board 
and for checking the temporary 
synchronization of the picture and the sound 
track. 

A mechanism similar to two coupled 
cameras. As its name implies, its basic 
function is to optically print or copy film. 
It is also used to achieve photographic 
effects such as fades, cross-dissolves, flips 
and repeats. 

Usually a part of a background or prop that 
goes over the cartoon characters when the 
scene is being photographed. It is used to 
create the illusion of greater depth in a 
scene. 

The movement of a scene or background 
during the photographic process. 

A background that moves during the 
photographic process. It may move 
vertically, horizontally or diagonally. 

A test in which the drawings are 
photographed instead of the finished eels in 
order to find where corrections are needed 
before the scene is inked and opaqued. 

The registration of drawings, eels or 
backgrounds in relation to normal center 
pegs. 

The recording of the sound track after 
animation has been completed. 

The recording of the sound track before any 
animation production has begun. 

The process of making an animated film. 
Also, the complete work. 

Unexposed film. 

A metal or plastic spool upon which film is 
wound for use in projectors and moviolas. 

The positioning of a drawing, eel or 
background on the pegs of an animation 
board so that all work is perfectly aligned. 

The final composite print that is released to 
TV stations or theaters. 



124 



ABBHEVIATION TEHM 
Rpt. Repeat 



Rev. 



R. 



Sc. 



Reverse 

Right 

Hough Cut 

Rushes 
Scene 



DEFINITION 



Used to indicate that an action is to be 
repeated for more than its original number 
of frames, for example in the repeat cycle of 
a walk. 

Used to indicate a change of direction for a 
pan background or an action. Also, an 
instruction to the optical cameraman to 
reverse the direction of the film. 

Used to indicate the direction of movement 
of a pan background or an animated 
character. 

The first combination of various shots and 
scenes to be used in a completed film. 

See Dailies 

A part of a film in which there is no change 
of place and which presents a single 
situation or dialogue. Also the place where 
the action is laid. 



Seq. 

Sh. 
S. E. 



S. F. 



Sequence 
Sheet 
Sound Effect 

Sound Reader 
Sound Track 

Squash 
Standard Field 

Still Background 
Stop Motion 
Story Board 

Stretch 



Several actions or scenes from a production. 
See Exposure Sheet 

A special effect on the sound track, such as 
the sound of an object dropping or a door 
closing. 

A mechanism used by a film editor in 
analyzing a sound track for animation 
purposes. 

The recorded dialogue and background 
sound on tape. Also, the edge of a film frame 
where the sound impulses appear. 

The exaggeration of a cartoon character or 
object through flattening or compression. 

The standard shooting area. This varies 
among animation studios. In most, the 
standard field is either the 1 1 field or the 12 
field ( 12 inches horizontal measurement) . 

A background that remains in a fixed 
position during an entire scene. 

The adjustment of a camera so that it can 
photograph one frame of film at a time. 

A series of drawings arranged like the panels 
of a comic strip to show the sequence of a 
plot. 

The exaggeration of a cartoon character or 
object through elongation. 



125 



ABBREVIATION TERM 



DEFINITION 



Sync. 



Synchronize, 
Synchronization 



Synchronizer 



T. 



T. P. 



T. B. 



Vert. 



X-Diss. 



Table Top 
Take 

Tap 
Top Pegs 

Trace Back 

Twos 

Vertical 

Wipe 

Work Print 

X 

X-Dissolve 
X Sheets 
Zoom 



The positioning of a sound track so that it is 
in harmony and timed to the picture portion 
of the film. 

A mechanism used by a film editor to 
measure the exact film length of each work 
and musical phrase on a sound track. It is 
usually used in conjunction with a sound 
reader. 

The movable working area of an animation 
stand on which the art work to be 
photographed is placed. 

This term has several meanings: 1) a 
reaction indicating surprise, used for added 
effect; 2) photographing an action, or the 
film that records the action. 

The breakdown of a musical beat. 

The upper set of pegs on an animation 
board or camera compound table used for 
registering drawings, eels or backgrounds. 

A note on a drawing to an inker to trace a 
portion of a drawing other than the one he 
is working on. 

Two exposures or frames for each eel. See 
Ones, Twos or Threes. 

Used to indicate the direction of movement 
of a pan background. 

An optical effect similar to the action of a 
window shade. It is used to take one scene 
out and introduce another over the same 
piece of film. 

The print used during production. Both the 
visual portion and the sound track of various 
scenes are cut to the actual lengths to be 
used in the finished production. 

See Frame 
See Cross-Dissolve 
See Exposure Sheets 
See Approach 



126 



Index 




Accent, 58, 107 
Action, 107 

change of pace, 58 

line of, and bouncing ball, 62 

path, 64 

Advertising agency, 15 
Animation, 52 

(and) exposure numbers, 49 
Animation board, 52 
Animation camera, 78, 81 
Animation cameraman, 20 
Animation director, 20, 26, 30, 31 
Animation stand, 78, 81 
Animator, 18 

breaking beats into taps, 57 

determination of length of sequence, 56 

(and) development of cartoon character, 32 

(and) effects, 72 

(and) flipping, 73 

lip synchronization by, 68 

responsibility for eel levels, 48 

short cuts used by, 52 
Answer print, 20 
Anticipation, 58, 107 



Background, 40 

eel level, 48 

musical, 57 

rendering, 18 

still, 104 

unchanged, 113 
Background artist, 18, 40 
Bar sheet, 16, 20 

purpose, 30-31 
Beat, 57 

Bouncing ball, 62-64 
Bumper footage, 115 

C 
Camera, 

animation, 78, 81 

minimization of movements, 78 
Cameraman, 

animation, 20 

optical, 20 
Cartoon characters, 18, 32; see also Mr. Wimple 

basic construction, 32 

movement cycle, 67 



squash and stretch, 65 

takes, 60 

types, 38 
Gel levels, 48, 95 

combined, 105, 107 

movement cycle and, 67 
Cels, 19 

opaquing, 74-76 
Checker, 19 
Close-ups, 104 

background, 42 
Color model, 32 
Commercials; see also General Electric commercial 

animated films, background, 40 

"live spot," 16 

production, 25 

"spot," 13 

Composite print, 20, 29 
Compound table, 78 
Cross-dissolve, 109, 111, 113 

optical, 101 
Cute type, 38 
Cuts, 104 

D 

Dailies, 16 
Dialogue, 24 

bar sheet and, 30 

lip synchronization and, 68 
table, 69 

preparation, 113 

sound track, 95 

spacing, 57 

spelling out, 99 
Director, 18 
Disney, Walt, 78 
Double takes, 60 
Drawings, 

extreme, 111 

key, 19, 89 

model, 19, 99 

ones, twos, and threes, 50 

E 
Editor, 

(and) film, 26-29 
Effects, 72 

flip, 83 

Exposure numbers, 49 
Exposure sheet, 44, 87, 109, 115 
Extremes, 54 



127 



Fade out, 109 

Film conversion table, 29 

Film editor, 20, 26-29, 30 

(and) synchronization, 26 
Fine grain, 20 
Fleischer, Max, 78 
Flipping, 19, 73 
Frame, 13, 104-115 

length of time of, 26 



General Electric commercial, 87115 
Goofy type, 38 



Heavy or tough type, 38 
Hit, 58 

Hold eel, 46-47, 93-107 
Hook up, 66 

I 

Inbetweener, 19, 74, 93 

Inker, 19, 74 

(and) swivel animation board, 52 
Inking, 19 
Interlock, 26 



Key drawings, 19, 89 
extreme, 54 

L 
Layout, 

background, 40 
Layout man, 18, 40 
Lead sheet, 16, 30 
Lip synchronization, 68 

M 

Mr. Wimple, 

animated on twos, 50 
GE commercial, 93-115 

Model drawings, 19, 99 

Mouth actions, 68 

Movement cycles, 66-67 
Mr. Wimple's, 93-115 

Moviola, 20, 26 

Multiplane setups, 18 

Multiple-image shots, 83 

N 

Narration, 24 

O 

Ones, 50 
Opaquer, 74, 76 
Opaquing, 19, 32, 74, 76 
Optical cameraman, 20 
cross-dissolve by, 109 
Optical print, 26, 29 
Optical printer, 20, 82-83 
Oxberry, John, 78 



P 

Pan, 40-42 

Print, 

answer, 20 

composite, 20, 29 

optical, 26, 29 

release, 29 

rough-cut, 16, 26 

work, 26 



Release print, 29 
Rough-cut print, 26 
Run, 66 
Rushes, 16 



Screwball type, 38 
Shadows, 73 
Singing, 56 
Sound reader, 16 

description, 26 
Sound track, 16, 95 

magnetic, 16 
Spacing guides, 54 
Special effects, 20 
Spins, 81 
Squash, 65 
Still, 40 

Stop-motion motor, 78 
Story board, 15, 18, 24-25 
Stretch, 65 
Strut, 66 
Subdued take, 60 
Synchronization, 

lip, 68 

sound track, 95 
Synchronizer, 16, 26 



Takes, 16, 58, 60-61 
Taps, 57 
Terry, Paul, 78 
Threes, 50 
Timing, 56 
Tracebacks, 47 
Twos, 50, 68 
Types, 32 



Violent takes, 60 

W 

Walk, 66 
Wipes, 83 
Work print, 26 

X 

X sheets, 44 

Z 

Zoom, 81 

Zoom mechanism, 81 



128